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Table 4 Determinants of lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS)

From: Frequency and predictors of the lupus low disease activity state in a multi-national and multi-ethnic cohort

Independent variable Number (%) in LLDAS Univariable logistic regression for LLDAS Multivariable logistic regression for LLDAS
   OR (95 % CI) p OR (95 % CI) p
Ethnicitya
 Caucasian 63 (50.00) Reference   Reference  
 Asian 700 (43.24) 0.76 (0.53–1.09) 0.14 1.23 (0.82–1.86) 0.31
Gender
 Female 758 (43.99) Reference   N/A  
 Male 52 (42.28) 0.93 (0.64–1.35) 0.71  
Education
 Primary 113 (46.69) Reference   N/A  
 Secondary 229 (40.03) 0.76 (0.56–1.03) 0.21  
 Tertiary 254 (41.10) 0.80 (0.59–1.07) 0.30  
Age at diagnosis
 >30 years 407 (47.22) Reference   Reference  
 ≤30 years 397 (40.80) 0.77 (0.64–0.93) 0.006 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.16
Disease duration
 >1 year 765 (46.48) Reference   Reference  
 ≤1 year 34 (22.82) 0.34 (0.23–0.51) <0.001 0.31 (0.19–0.49) <0.001
Clinical featuresb
 Malar rash
  No 331 (43.61) Reference   N/A  
  Yes 479 (44.07) 1.02 (0.82–1.23) 0.85  
 Discoid rash
  No 701 (45.05) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 109 (37.59) 0.73 (0.57–0.95) 0.02 0.66 (0.49–0.89) 0.006
 Photosensitive
  No 562 (42.93) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 248 (46.18) 1.14 (0.93–1.40) 0.20 1.18 (0.93–1.50) 0.16
 Mouth Ulcers
  No 527 (44.81) Reference   N/A  
  Yes 283 (42.24) 0.90 (0.74–1.09) 0.28  
 Arthritis
  No 263 (41.03) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 547 (45.39) 1.19 (0.98–1.45) 0.07 0.98 (0.78–1.23) 0.87
 Serositis
  No 673 (43.90) Reference   N/A  
  Yes 137 (43.77) 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.97  
 Renal
  No 508 (48.71) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 302 (37.61) 0.63 (0.53–0.77) <0.001 0.60 (0.48–0.75) <0.001
 Neurologic
  No 732 (43.42) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 78 (48.75) 1.24 (0.90–1.72) 0.20 1.31 (0.90–1.91) 0.16
 Haematologic
  No 289 (39.70) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 521 (46.60) 0.22 (0.03–1.76) 0.09 1.21 (0.97–1.51) 0.09
 Immunologic
  No 145 (48.59) Reference   N/A  
  Yes 665 (42.99) 0.80 (0.63–1.03) 0.08  
 ANA
  No 101 (46.12) Reference   N/A  
  Yes 709 (43.58) 0.90 (0.68 − 1.20) 0.48  
 Baseline damage
  SLICC-DI = 0 505 (44.84) Reference   N/A  
  SLICC-DI >0 308 (42.95) 1.00 (0.83–1.21) 0.96  
 Current high anti-dsDNA
  No 434 (51.12) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 341 (36.43) 0.55 (0.46–0.68) <0.001 0.65 (0.53–0.81) <0.001
 Current low complement
  No 636 (49.88) Reference   Reference  
  Yes 142 (29.83) 0.45 (0.37–0.55) <0.001 0.52 (0.40–0.67) <0.001
 GDP ≤ $25,000c 324 (36.00) Reference   Reference  
 GDP > $25,000 486 (51.37) 1.89 (1.56–2.26) <0.001 1.57 (1.25–1.98) <0.001
  1. Multivariable model choice - variables with a p value ≤0.20 or clinical association in univariable regression were tested for multicolliniarity and confounding. Final variable list - GDP (PPP) per capita, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, disease duration, discoid rash, photosensitivity, arthritis, renal disease, neurologic disease, haematologic disease, dsDNA and complement. aEthnicity – no significant differences were seen between Asian ethnicity subgroups. bEver present, arthritis (two or more joints with tenderness, swelling or effusion), serositis (pleuritis or pericarditis), renal disorder (persistent proteinuria >0.5 g/day, or presence of cellular casts), neurologic disorder (seizures or psychosis not attributable to other causes), haematologic disorder (haemolytic anaemia, leukopenia, lymphopenia or thrombocytopenia), immunologic criteria (presence of anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-Sm antibody, or positive finding of antiphospholipid antibodies). cCountries with GPD < $25,000 - China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand; countries with GDP > $25,000 - Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan. GDP measured in US dollars. N/A variable not included in multivariable regression model
  2. LLDAS lupus low disease activity state, SLICC Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics, DI damage index, dsDNA double-stranded DNA, ANA antinuclear antibody, GDP gross domestic product