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Fig. 2 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Altered lipoproteins in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with augmented oxidative stress: a potential role in atherosclerosis

Fig. 2

Increased oxidation of lipoproteins from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. a HDL2, HDL3, and LDL were isolated from SLE patients (n = 19) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 8), and their oxidation status (i.e., MDA levels) was measured. All lipoprotein fractions from SLE patients showed significantly higher levels of oxidation than those from HCs. b LDL was incubated in the presence of 5 μM CuSO4, and the formation of conjugated dienes over time was measured as a marker of de novo oxidation. LDL from SLE patients was significantly more susceptible to oxidation than that from HCs. c Serum paraoxonase activity was significantly lower in SLE samples than in HC samples. Data are expressed as the mean and SEM. HC healthy controls, MDA malondialdehyde, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus

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