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Table 5 Genes with the greatest differences in expression between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls

From: Molecular alterations in skeletal muscle in rheumatoid arthritis are related to disease activity, physical inactivity, and disability

Gene ID Gene name and description Fold change p value
Upregulated in RA
 OTUD1 OUT deubiquitinase 1: removes ubiquitin molecules with probable signaling regulatory role 1.50 0.035
 FEZ2a Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 2 (zygin II): reduces autophagy [32]; associated with reduced cardiorespiratory fitness [33] 1.40 0.005
 PITX1a Paired-like homeodomain 1: promotes muscle atrophy [34] 1.37 0.046
 RNU4ATAC RNA, U4atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing): codes for component of the minor spliceosome [35, 36] 1.36 0.045
 ABRAa Actin binding Rho activating protein: promotes myoblast differentiation and myotube maturation [24] 1.33 0.031
 RCAN1a Regulator of calcineurin 1: regulates fiber type patterning during differentiation 1.32 0.019
 CITED2a Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain, 2: promotes stem cell maintenance [22, 23]; prevents myofibril degradation [37] 1.32 0.027
 VGLL2a Vestigial-like family member 2: expressed in myotubes [27] 1.30 0.035
 MYF6a Myogenic factor 6 (herculin): promotes myoblast terminal differentiation [29] 1.27 0.033
 RPL36AL Ribosomal protein L36a-like: ribosomal protein with ability to terminate translation in certain situations [38] 1.27 0.011
Downregulated in RA
 FBP2b Fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase 2: promotes glycogen storage [39, 40]; protects mitochondria from Ca2+ -induced injury [41] −1.42 0.013
 MYLK4a Myosin light chain kinase family, member 4: reduced expression associated with cardiomyopathies [42] −1.37 0.024
 ZFP36ac ZFP36 ring finger protein; encodes tristetraprolin (TTP): reduces inflammation and prevents satellite cell activation [20] −1.36 0.023
 DDIT4a DNA damage-inducible transcript 4; also known as protein regulated in development and damage response 1 (REDD-1): promotes autophagy, with reduced expression associated with exercise intolerance [43] −1.34 0.023
 MIDNb Midnolin: regulates neurogenesis [44]; reduces pancreatic glycolysis in low glucose states [45] −1.32 0.017
 SLC2A5b Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter), member 5: performs facilitative fructose uptake into muscle [46] −1.31 0.041
 SLC25A25b Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 25: promotes anti-atherosclerotic macrophage ATP production [47]; promotes muscle ATP production and physical endurance [48] −1.30 0.013
 RRADa Ras-related associated with diabetes: increases myoblast proliferation and promotes myotube formation [30] −1.30 0.044
 ZBTB16bc Zinc ring finger and BTB domain containing 16: suppresses autoreactive T cells and inflammation [21]; promotes adaptive thermogenesis and mitochondrial capacity [49] −1.27 0.050
 SMTNL2 Smoothelin-like 2: associated with myotube formation [50] −1.22 0.008
  1. aGenes associated with muscle remodeling, satellite cell maturation, or exercise intolerance. See Additional file 1 for more details. bGenes associated with metabolism
  2. cGenes associated with immune and inflammatory responses