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Table 1 Characteristics of the 164 patients with ankylosing spondylitis at baseline and 5-year follow-up

From: A longitudinal study of fecal calprotectin and the development of inflammatory bowel disease in ankylosing spondylitis

  Baseline 5-Year follow-up p Value
Sex, female/male 74 (45)/90 (55)   
Age, years 49.5 (41–62) 54.5 (46–67) <0.001
Years since onset of AS symptoms 22 (13–34) 27 (18–39) <0.001
Years since AS diagnosis 12 (5–23) 17 (10–28) <0.001
HLA-B27-positive 141 (86)   
Fecal calprotectin, mg/kg 86 (45–222) 82 (35–190) 0.660
Fecal calprotectin level
  ≤ 50 mg/kg 48 (29.3) 60 (36.6) 0.660
 51–199 mg/kg 69 (42.1) 64 (39.0)
 200–499 mg/kg 32 (19.5) 29 (17.7)
 500–999 mg/kg 13 (7.9) 8 (4.9)
 >1000 mg/kg 2 (1.2) 3 (1.8)
Serum calprotectin, ng/ml 645 (282–705) No data N/A
CRP, mg/L 2 (1–6) 3 (1–6) 0.434
ESR, mm/h 11 (7–18) 8 (4–14) <0.001
ASDASCRP score 2.2 (1.6–3.0) 2.1 (1.3–2.7) <0.001
BASDAI score 3.1 (1.6–5.2) 3.2 (1.8–5.2) 0.713
BAS-G score 2.7 (1.2–5.7) 2.8 (1.4–5.9) 0.187
BASFI score 2.3 (1.0–3.8) 2.3 (1.0-4.1) 0.443
BASMI score 2.8 (2.0–4.0) 3.4 (2.4–4.6) <0.001
Current smoker 15 (9.1) 11(6.7) 0.388
NSAIDs 128 (78) 125 (76) 0.868
 Daily use 73 (45) 66 (40)
 As needed 55 (34) 59 (36)
TNF blockers 33 (20) 39 (24) 0.238
 Infliximab 24 (15) 21 (13) 0.664
 Adalimumab 4 (2) 8 (5) 0.289
 Golimumab 0 (0) 4 (2) N/A
 Etanercept 5 (3) 6 (4) 1.000
DMARDs    
 Methotrexate 35 (21) 29 (18) 0.189
 Sulfasalazine 16 (10) 8 (5) 0.004
Regular occurrence of gastrointestinal symptoms
 Loose stools 70 (43) 66 (40) 0.401
 Mucus in diarrhea 25 (15) 34 (21) 0.405
 Blood in stools 22 (13) 21 (13) 1.000
 Blood in diarrhea 8 (5) 9 (5) 1.000
 Abdominal pain 24 (15) 33 (20) 0.210
 Obstipation 54 (33) 41 (25) 0.008
 Reflux symptoms 65 (40) 62 (38) 0.391
 Epigastric pain 47 (29) 46 (28) 1.000
  1. Abbreviations: AS Ankylosing spondylitis, CRP C-reactive protein, DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ASDAS CRP Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein, BASDAI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, BAS-G Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score, BASFI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, BASMI Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TNF tumor necrosis factor
  2. Data are presented as median and [interquartile range] or number (%)