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Table 2 Sequential explanatory model for marginal total healthcare expenditures in those with self-reported joint pain and/or arthritis

From: The impact of arthritis and joint pain on individual healthcare expenditures: findings from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), 2011

Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
No reported joint pain and/or arthritis (reference)
Self-reported joint pain and/or arthritis $6773* $4427* $3980* $2764* $1638*
Predisposing factors
 Age, years
  18–24 (reference)  
  25–44   $1571* $1873* $2381* $2372*
  45–64   $3633* $3717* $3224* $3038*
  65+   $6150* $3510* $2087* $1607*
 Race
  Non-Hispanic white (reference)  
  Non-Hispanic black   −$883** −$1053** −$1325** −$1287*
  Non-Hispanic other   −$543 −$448 −$741 −$136
  Hispanic   −$2196* −$1960* −$1845* −$1683*
 Sex
  Male (reference)  
  Female   $1053* $929* $1272* $1383*
 Region
  Northeast (reference)  
  Midwest   −$149 $78 −$101 −$168.78
  South   −$514 −$69 −$458 −$325.85
  West   $272 $489 $610 $746.14
 MSA
  Rural (reference)  
  Urban   $797** $1124* $1216* $1241*
Enabling factors      
 Income
   < $25,000 (reference)   
  $25,000–$49,999    −$414 −$293 −$44
  $50,000–$74,999    $3 $444 $817
   > $75,000    $364 $1487*** $1761**
 Employment
  Not employed (reference)   
  Employed    −$3239 −$2654* −$2018*
 Education
  Less than high school (reference)   
  High school    $849*** $1566** $1634*
  College    $709 $1242* $1305*
  Graduate school    $1515** $2493* $2457*
 Insurance
  Any private (reference)   
  Public only    $1526*** $1639 *** $947
  No insurance    −$3615* −$3875* −$3943*
 Marital status
  Married (reference)   
  Separated/divorced/widowed    $63 $34 −$131
  Never married    −$55 $79 −$172
Need factors****      
 Asthma     $2428* $2001*
 Diabetes     $3001* $2669*
 Emphysema     $2476*** $1559***
 High blood pressure     $938* $876*
 High cholesterol     $1149* $1194*
 Stroke     $2683* $1727***
 Depression     $3182* $1939*
 CVD     $2814* $2375*
 BMI
  Underweight (reference)    
  Normal     $726 $1200
  Overweight     $388 $732
  Obese     $534 $824
Risk factor of interest****
 Any limitations      $3308*
 IADL      $2488***
 ADL      $2284***
 Walk limitations      $253
  1. Abbreviations: ADL Activities of daily living, BMI Body mass index, CVD Cardiovascular disease, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living, MSA Metropolitan statistical area
  2. Sequential linear models were used, with each column representing a separate generalized linear model using gamma distribution
  3. * p < 0.001
  4. ** p < 0.01
  5. *** p < 0.05
  6. ****Reference groups compared with those without need factor or risk factor