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Table 1 Demographics and RA disease characteristics and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction in RA patients

From: Endothelial injury in rheumatoid arthritis: a crosstalk between dimethylarginines and systemic inflammation

Factor   All patients Inflammation  
N (N = 186) Normal (N = 160) High (N = 26) p value
Age (years)b 186 66 (59, 73)b 66 (58, 72) 70 (60, 73) 0.225
Female gender (%)a 186 144 (77.4%) 121 (75.6%) 23 (88.5%) 0.206
Disease duration (years)b 154 16 (11, 25)b 16 (11,25) 16 (12. 21) 0.692
RF (%)a 183 136 (74.3%) 114 (72.2%) 22 (88.0%) 0.137
Anti-CCP antibodies (%)a 181 115 (63.5%) 96 (61.5%) 19 (76.0%) 0.186
ESR (mm/h)b 181 11 (5, 22)b 9 (5, 16) 40 (30, 56) -
CRP (mg/L)b 186 3.0 (2.9, 8.0)b 2.9 (2.9, 4.5) 21.0 (13.0, 31.0) -
DAS 28c 181 3.14 (1.18)c 2.97 (1.10) 4.19 (1.12) <0.001
ADMA (μmol/L)d 181 0.56 (0.54–0.58)d 0.55 (0.53–0.57) 0.59 (0.56–0.63) 0.136
SDMA (μmol/L)d 186 0.46 (0.44–0.47)d 0.46 (0.45–0.47) 0.45 (0.41–0.50) 0.812
ADMA:SDMAd 181 1.22 (1.17–1.27)d 1.20 (1.15–1.25) 1.30 (1.17–1.46) 0.167
Arterial stiffnessc 165 33 (9)c 33 (9) 33 (8) 0.791
Microvascular endothelial dependent (ACh %)d 179 235 (207–265)d 244 (213–276) 184 (119–262) 0.145
Microvascular endothelial- independent (SNP %)d 179 116 (100–134)d 119 (102–138) 100 (60–159) 0.421
Macrovascular endothelial- dependent (FMD %)d 173 9.8 (8.8–10.8)d 9.9 (8.8–11.0) 9.0 (6.4–11.9) 0.554
Macrovascular endothelial- independent (GTN %)d 155 19.6 (18.2–21.1)d 19.7 (18.2–21.4) 18.9 (16.0–22.4) 0.715
cIMT (mm)d 157 0.68 (0.66–0.70)d 0.67 (0.65–0.70) 0.72 (0.67–0.79) 0.116
  1. Bold p values are significant at p < 0.05
  2. RA rheumatoid arthritis, RF rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP anti–citrullinated protein antibody, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS 28 disease activity score 28, ADMA asymmetric dimethylarginine, SDMA symmetric dimethylarginine, ACh acetylcholine, SNP sodium nitroprusside, FMD flow-mediated dilatation, GTN glyceryl-trinitrate mediated dilatation, cIMT intima media thickness
  3. a N (%), with p values from Fisher’s exact tests
  4. bMedian (quartiles), with p values from Mann–Whitney tests
  5. cMean (SD), with p values from t tests
  6. dGeometric mean (95% CI), with p values from t tests on log-transformed data