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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia in the present study

From: Acupuncture decreased the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with fibromyalgia in Taiwan: a nationwide matched cohort study

Variable No acupuncture (n = 58,899) Acupuncture (n = 58,899) Standardized mean difference
n % n %
Sex
 Female 33,331 56.59 33,447 56.79 0.004
 Male 25,568 43.41 25,452 43.21  
Age group, years
 18–39 24,487 41.57 23,572 40.02 0.032
 40–59 27,481 46.66 29,748 50.51 0.077
 ≥60 6931 11.77 5579 9.47 0.075
 Mean (±SD), years 44.57 (15.43) 44.28 (14.44) 0.02
Baseline comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 6252 10.61 6098 10.35 0.009
 Hypertension 12,457 21.15 12,036 20.43 0.018
 Hyperlipidemia 10,097 17.14 10,034 17.04 0.003
 Congestive heart failure 569 0.97 508 0.86 0.011
 Cerebrovascular diseases 4044 6.87 3786 6.43 0.018
 Depression 2863 4.86 2840 4.82 0.002
 Anxiety 6551 11.12 6600 11.21 0.003
 Alcoholism or alcohol-related disorders 311 0.53 316 0.54 0.001
 Tobacco dependence 289 0.49 270 0.46 0.005
 Obesity 439 0.75 427 0.72 0.002
Drugs used
 Oral steroids 39466 67.01 39495 67.06 0.001
 NSAIDs 57613 97.82 57734 98.02 0.014
 Statins 7971 13.53 7937 13.48 0.002
Types of acupuncture
 Manual acupuncture of TCM type 50,470 85.69  
 Electroacupuncture 2142 3.64  
 Combination of manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture    6287 10.67  
Duration between the initial diagnosis to the first acupuncture treatment, days, mean (median) 919 (574)  
Acupuncture visits, mean 7.45  
Follow-up duration, years, mean (median) 3.60 (3.02) 4.27 (3.79)  
  1. NSAIDs Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, TCM Traditional Chinese medicine