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Table 3 Incidence rates and hazard ratios for coronary heart disease among patients with fibromyalgia with or without acupuncture treatment

From: Acupuncture decreased the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with fibromyalgia in Taiwan: a nationwide matched cohort study

Variable No acupuncture (n = 58,899) Acupuncture (n = 58,899)   
Events Person-years IR Events Person-years IR Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HRa (95% CI)
Total 8133 212,027 38.36 4389 251,711 17.44 0.48 (0.46–0.50)b 0.43 (0.41–0.45)b
Sex
 Female 4650 120,934 38.45 2488 141,235 17.62 0.48 (0.46–0.51)b 0.43 (0.41–0.45)b
 Male 3483 91,093 38.24 1901 110,476 17.21 0.47 (0.45–0.5)b 0.45 (0.43–0.48)b
Age group, years
 18–39 877 92,941 9.44 371 94,477 3.93 0.42 (0.38–0.48)b 0.39 (0.35–0.44)b
 40–59 5059 99,271 50.96 2887 133,190 21.68 0.45 (0.43–0.47)b 0.42 (0.41–0.44)b
 ≥60 2197 19,814 110.88 1131 24,044 47.04 0.48 (0.45–0.52)b 0.47 (0.43–0.5)b
Baseline comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus
  No 6227 193,111 32.25 3301 225,893 14.61 0.47 (0.45–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.46)b
  Yes 1906 18,916 100.76 1088 25,818 42.14 0.46 (0.42–0.49)b 0.44 (0.41–0.47)b
 Hypertension
  No 4148 174,292 23.80 2186 199,801 10.94 0.48 (0.45–0.5)b 0.43 (0.41–0.46)b
  Yes 3985 37,735 105.61 2203 51,910 42.44 0.44 (0.42–0.47)b 0.44 (0.42–0.46)b
 Hyperlipidemia
  No 5328 180,288 29.55 2742 210,271 13.04 0.46 (0.44–0.48)b 0.43 (0.41–0.45)b
  Yes 2805 31,738 88.38 1647 41,440 39.74 0.49 (0.46–0.52)b 0.46 (0.43–0.49)b
 Congestive heart failure
  No 7942 210,670 37.70 4282 249,749 17.15 0.48 (0.46–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.45)b
  Yes 191 1356 140.83 107 1963 54.52 0.45 (0.35–0.57)b 0.46 (0.36–0.59)b
 Cerebrovascular diseases
  No 6867 199,807 34.37 3689 235,364 15.67 0.48 (0.46–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.45)b
  Yes 1266 12,220 103.60 700 16,348 42.82 0.46 (0.42–0.5)b 0.45 (0.41–0.49)b
 Depression
  No 7628 203,237 37.53 4091 240,799 16.99 0.48 (0.46–0.49)b 0.44 (0.42–0.45)b
  Yes 505 8790 57.45 298 10,912 27.31 0.51 (0.44–0.59)b 0.46 (0.4–0.53)b
 Anxiety
  No 6860 191,626 35.80 3702 225,730 16.40 0.48 (0.46–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.46)b
 Yes 1273 20,401 62.40 687 25,982 26.44 0.46 (0.42–0.5)b 0.43 (0.39–0.47)b
 Alcoholism or alcohol-related disorders
  No 8093 211,137 38.33 4372 250,521 17.45 0.48 (0.46–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.46)b
  Yes 40 889 44.99 17 1190 14.28 0.35 (0.2–0.61)b 0.33 (0.19–0.6)b
 Tobacco dependence
  No 8109 211,341 38.37 4374 251,047 17.42 0.48 (0.46–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.45)b
  Yes 24 685 35.02 15 664 22.58 0.68 (0.35–1.29) 0.47 (0.23–0.94)c
 Obesity
 No 8062 210,777 38.25 4351 250,115 17.40 0.48 (0.46–0.5)b 0.44 (0.42–0.46)b
 Yes 71 1250 56.80 38 1596 23.81 0.45 (0.3–0.66)b 0.36 (0.24–0.55)b
Drugs used
 Oral steroids
  No 3458 56,042 61.70 1574 74,258 21.20 0.39 (0.37–0.41)b 0.39 (0.37–0.42)b
  Yes 4675 155,985 29.97 2815 177,453 15.86 0.54 (0.52–0.57)b 0.49 (0.46–0.51)b
 NSAIDs
  No 543 1878 289.11 175 3206 54.58 0.27 (0.23–0.32)b 0.31 (0.26–0.37)b
  Yes 7590 210,148 36.12 4214 248,505 16.96 0.49 (0.47–0.51)b 0.45 (0.44–0.47)b
 Statins
  No 6799 179,722 37.83 3505 215,745 16.25 0.46 (0.44–0.48)b 0.42 (0.4–0.44)b
  Yes 1334 32,305 41.29 884 35,967 24.58 0.6 (0.55–0.66)b 0.56 (0.52–0.61)b
  1. IR Incidence rate per 1000 person-years; NSAIDs Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. a Adjusted HR adjusted for accepted acupuncture, age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, cerebral vascular diseases, depression, anxiety, alcoholism or alcohol-related disorders, tobacco dependence, obesity, oral steroids, NSAIDs, and statins in Cox proportional hazards regression
  3. b p < 0.001
  4. c p < 0.05