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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of SLE patients with a normal ECG and ECG-4 and ECG-5 at the first visit

From: Prevalence and associated factors of resting electrocardiogram abnormalities among systemic lupus erythematosus patients without cardiovascular disease

Variables   ECG normal
n = 314
ECG-4
n = 104
p ECG-5
n = 118
p
Gender
  Female 286 (91.1%) 92(88.5) 0.43 104 (88.1%) 0.357
Male 28 (8.9%) 12 (11.5%)   14 (11.9%)  
Ethnicity
  Caucasian 181 (58.2%) 59 (57.8%) 0.09 69 (59.5%) 0.146
  Black 51 (16.4%) 26 (25.5%)   27 (23.3%)  
Asian 38 (12.2%) 10 (9.8%)   12 (10.3%)  
Others 41 (13.2%) 7 (6.4)   8 (6.9%)  
Age at SLE diagnosis (years) 29.6 ± 11.3 30.66 ± 11.01 0.42 30.46 ± 11.86 0.50
Age at ECG (years) 44.87 ± 12.9 50.14 ± 14.1 <0.001 49.95 ± 15.01 <0.001
Disease duration at ECG (years) 15.23 ± 10.2 19.48 ± 11.03 <0.001 19.49 ± 11.44 <0.001
Follow-up duration at ECG (years) 10.57 ± 9.4 13.69 ± 11.29 0.006 13.41 ± 11.24 0.008
SLEDAI-2 K at the first visit 9.24 ± 8.3 10.2 ± 7.78 0.30 9.82 ± 7.67 0.52
SDI 0.27 ± 0.7 0.44 ± 0.92 0.07 0.44 ± 0.90 0.06
Cumulative glucocorticoid (g) 5.24 ± 16.5 9.16 ± 31.25 0.10 8.96 ± 29.85 0.10
Treated with antimalarials 147 (46.8%) 51 (49.0%) 0.69 59 (50.0%) 0.55
Treated with immunosuppressives 93 (29.6%) 33 (31.7%) 0.68 37 (31.4%) 0.73
Hypertension 153 (48.7%) 65 (62.5%) 0.015 74 (63.6%) 0.006
Hyperlipidemia on statins ever before ECG 87 (27.7%) 40 (38.5%) 0.039 44(37.3%) 0.05
DM 3 years prior to ECG 16 (5.1%) 4 (3.8%) 0.60 4 (3.4%) 0.45
Smoking ever prior to ECG 91 (29%) 30 (28.8%) 0.97 34 (28.8%) 0.91
  1. Values are shown as mean ± SD or n (%) as appropriate
  2. p values are from t test for means, Chi-Square test for binary variables, and Cochran-Armitage trend test for categorical variables
  3. DM diabetes mellitus, ECG electrocardiogram, SDI SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI-2 K SLE Disease Activity Index 2000