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Fig. 1 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: Structural cartilage damage attracts circulating rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts into affected joints

Fig. 1

Cartilage coincubation with interleukin (IL)-1 stimulates transmigration of human tumor necrosis factor–transgenic (hTNFtg) synovial fibroblasts (SFs). a Schematic overview showing a modified Boyden chamber with a brain endothelioma 5 cell line (b.End5) layer on a laminin-coated porous membrane. SFs were seeded onto the b.End5 layer into the upper compartment, whereas the lower compartment contained different chemoattractant media. b Quantification of transmigrated SFs shows the significantly increased transmigration rate of hTNFtg SFs compared with SFs derived from WT mice (WTSFs), particularly when a fetal calf serum (FCS) gradient was generated. c Quantification of transmigrated SFs through an endothelial cell layer. hTNFtg SFs showed a significantly higher transmigratory capacity than WTSFs when migrating through an unstimulated b.End5 endothelium. TNF-α stimulation of the b.End5 layer prior to the seeding of SFs further increased the transmigration of both hTNFtg SFs and WTSFs, showing a significant increase for WTSFs. d Coincubation of murine cartilage explants with IL-1β in the lower compartment significantly increased the transmigration of hTNFtg SFs. In contrast, neither cartilage nor IL-1β alone was sufficient to enhance the transmigratory capacity of hTNFtg SFs. e Representative images of cartilage hip caps showing IL-1-induced proteoglycan loss (arrows) via toluidine blue staining. The values represent the mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments consisting of duplicates as x-fold of (b) migrated WTSFs without gradient, (c) migrated WTSFs without b.End5 stimulation, or (d) migrated hTNFtg SFs without chemoattractant medium. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, Student’s t test. MCP-1 Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

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