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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of participants

From: Population-specific association between ABCG2 variants and tophaceous disease in people with gout

  All participants Non-Polynesian ancestry Māori or Pacific ancestry
With data, % No tophi (n = 1151) Tophi (n = 627) P With data, % No tophi (n = 639) Tophi (n = 288) P With data, % No tophi (n = 512) Tophi (n = 339) P
Male sex, n (%) 100 955 (83.0%) 542 (86.4%) 0.06a 100 541 (84.7%) 245 (85.1%) 0.87a 100 414 (80.9%) 297 (87.6%) 0.01a
Age, years 99.5 57 (14) 58 (14) 0.52b 100 62 (14) 64 (13) 0.02b 100 52 (13) 53 (13) 0.50b
Duration of gout, years 98.3 13 (12) 17 (12) <0.001b 98.7 14 (13) 16 (12) <0.001b 97.8 11 (11) 18 (12) <0.001b
Number of gout flares in previous year 95.9 4.8 (8.4) 7.9 (11.9) <0.001b 95.4 3.8 (7.5) 6.2 (10.3) <0.001a 96.5 6.0 (9.2) 9.4 (13.0) <0.001b
Māori or Pacific ancestry, n (%) 100 512 (44.5%) 339 (54.1%) <0.001a         
Body mass index, kg/m2 98.4 32.9 (8.05) 33.0 (7.66) 0.78b 98.5 30.31 (7.19) 29.86 (5.50) 0.35b 98.4 36.13 (7.90) 35.72 (8.20) 0.47b
Cardiac disease, n (%) 99.4 353 (30.9%) 221 (35.3%) 0.06a 99.7 203 (31.9%) 116 (40.3%) 0.01a 99.2 150 (29.6%) 105 (31.1%) 0.66a
Diabetes, n (%) 98.6 217 (19.2%) 138 (22.2%) 0.14a 99.4 92 (14.5%) 51 (17.7%) 0.22a 97.8 125 (25.1%) 87 (26.0%) 0.76a
Alcohol intake, servings per week 98.3 6.1 (10.8) 5.4 (9.3) 0.15b 99.4 6.9 (9.9) 6.6 (9.9) 0.62b 97.9 5.1 (11.8) 4.4 (8.5) 0.31b
Diuretic use, n (%) 100 285 (24.8%) 173 (27.6%) 0.06a 100 157 (24.6%) 85 (29.5%) 0.06a 100 128 (25.0%) 88 (26.0%) 0.57a
Colchicine use, n (%) 94.4 547 (51.2%) 406 (67.3%) <0.001a 97.1 275 (44.6%) 168 (59.7%) <0.001a 91.4 272 (53.1%) 238 (70.2%) <0.001a
Prednisone use, n (%) 95.1 433 (40.1%) 322 (53.0%) <0.001a 97.5 214 (34.5%) 141 (49.6%) <0.001a 92.5 219 (47.6%) 181 (55.9%) 0.02a
NSAID use, n (%) 97.0 877 (78.6%) 499 (81.1%) 0.21a 98.2 470 (75.2%) 224 (78.8%) 0.23a 95.8 400 (83.2%) 275 (83.4%) 0.97a
Urate-lowering therapy, n (%) 99.5 829 (72.5%) 541 (86.4%) <0.001a 99.5 441 (69.6%) 244 (84.7%) <0.001a 99.5 388 (76.2%) 297 (87.9%) <0.001a
Creatinine at time of recruitment, mmol/L 98.9 111 (57) 120 (57) <0.001b 99.1 109 (45) 121 (57) <0.001b 98.1 114 (68) 120 (57) 0.22b
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 98.7 65 (20) 61 (22) <0.001b 99.1 64 (20) 59 (22) <0.001b 98.1 65 (21) 63 (21) 0.09b
Serum urate at time of recruitment, mmol/L 100 0.42 (0.11) 0.41 (0.12) 0.76b 100 0.40 (0.11) 0.40 (0.11) 0.59b 100 0.44 (0.11) 0.42 (0.13) 0.08b
Highest recorded serum urate, mmol/L 100 0.55 (1.11) 0.55 (0.13) 0.97b 100 0.49 (0.13) 0.52 (0.12) <0.001b 100 0.62 (1.65) 0.57 (0.12) 0.59b
  1. Unless specified, data are presented as mean (SD). a P value from Pearson’s chi-squared test. bTwo-sided p value from two-sample t test with equal variances. NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate