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Table 1 The clinical characteristics of the new-onset untreated SLE patients (n = 90)

From: Elevated serum autoantibodies against co-inhibitory PD-1 facilitate T cell proliferation and correlate with disease activity in new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients

Variable SLE patients
Gender (female/male, n) 76/14
Age (mean ± SD, year) 33.1 ± 9.8
Disease duration (mean ± SD, days) 72.0 ± 53.0
SLEDAI (mean ± SD) 12.9 ± 7.9
Disease activity  
SLEDAI ≤ 8, (n, %) 40, (44.4)
SLEDAI > 8, (n, %) 50, (55.6)
Disease manifestations  
Arthritis (n, %) 41, (45.6)
Rash (n, %) 43, (47.8)
Oral ulcer (n, %) 11, (5.0)
Serositis (n, %) 16, (17.8)
Photosensitivity (n, %) 14, (15.6)
Raynaud’s phenomenon (n, %) 5, (5.6)
Hematological (n, %) 46, (51.1)
Lupus nephritis (proteinuria ≥ 0.5 g/24 h) (n, %) 21, (23.3)
Neuropsychiatric manifestations (n, %) 8, (8.9)
Autoantibody profile  
Anti-dsDNA + (n, %) 75, (83.3)
Anti-Sm + (n, %) 21, (23.3)
Anti-SSA + (n, %) 42, (46.7)
Anti-SSB + (n, %) 13, (14.4)
Anti-U1RNP + (n, %) 29, (32.2)
Anti-Rib-P + (n, %) 15, (16.7)
Anti-nucleosome-A + (n, %) 36, (40.0)
  1. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SD standard deviation, SLEDAI-2 K SLE disease activity index 2000