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Table 2 Flares and medical treatments during pregnancy in patients with and without tumor necrosis factor inhibitor use until early pregnancy

From: Risk factors for flare and treatment of disease flares during pregnancy in rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis patients

  RA axSpA
TNFi until positive pregnancy testa (n = 15) TNFi-negative (n = 60) TNFi until positive pregnancy test (n = 24) TNFi-negative (n = 37)
Patients (n) with flare at
 First trimester 6 4 1 2
 Second trimester 3 4 5 1
 Third trimester 1 4 4 2
Medication at conception
 TNFi 15 (100) 0 (0) 24 (100) 0 (0)
 NSAIDs 1 (6.7) 13 (21.7) 11 (45.8) 23 (61.2)
 Glucocorticosteroidsb 1 (6.7) 23 (38.3) 2 (8.3) 1(3.7)
 DMARDs 2 (13.3) 27 (45) 3 (12.5) 2 (5.4)
  SSZ 1 (6.7) 17(28.3) 3 (12.5) 2 (5.4)
  HCQ 1 (6.7) 7 (11.7)   
  SSZ and HCQ   3 (5)   
Medication during pregnancy
 TNFi 4 (26.7) 5 (8.3) 10 (41.7) 1 (2.7)
 NSAIDs 5 (33.3) 23 (38.3) 15 (62.5) 27 (73)
 Glucocorticosteroidsb 7 (46.7) 29 (48.3) 12 (50.0) 3 (8.1)
 DMARDs 7 (46.7) 38 (63.3) 3 (12.5) 2 (5.4)
  SSZ 1 (6.7) 23 (38.3) 3 (12.5) 2 (5.4)
  HCQ 1 (6.7) 9 (15)   
  SSZ and HCQ 5 (33.3) 6 (10)   
Initiation of medication during pregnancy 9 (60) 16 (26.7) 15 (62.5) 4 (10.8)
 TNFic 4 (26.7) 5 (8.3) 10 (41.7) 1 (2.7)
  Start at visit 1 T-2 T-3 T 2-2-0 1-3-1 4-4-2 0-0-1
 Glucocorticosteroidsb 5 (33.3) 11(18.6) 12 (50) 3 (8.1)
  Start at visit 1 T-2 T-3 T 0-4-1 3-6-2 4-5-3 0-2-1
  1. Abbreviations: axSpA Axial spondyloarthritis, DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, HCQ Hydrochloroquine, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, SSZ Sulfasalazine, TNFi Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor, 1 T First trimester, 2 T Second trimester, 3 T Third trimester
  2. Numbers are count or count (percent); the percentages are calculated for each column
  3. aNSAIDs used until gestational week 32
  4. bPrednisone or prednisolone
  5. cTNFi initiated during pregnancy: 11 certolizumab, 8 etanercept, 1 adalimumab