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Table 3 Risk factors for flare during the course of pregnancy

From: Risk factors for flare and treatment of disease flares during pregnancy in rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthritis patients

  Patients with RA (n = 75) Patients with axSpA (n = 61)
Flare No flare RR 95% CI P value Flare No flare RR 95% CI P value
Treatment
 TNFi before pregnancya and discontinued at positive pregnancy test 10 of 22 (45.5) 5 of 53 (9.4) 3.333 (1.8–6.1) 0.001* 10 of 15 (66.7) 14 of 46 (30.4) 3.083 (1.2–7.9) 0.017*
 TNFi during first trimester 3 of 22 (13.6) 5 of 53 (9.4) 1.322 (0.5–3.5) 0.686 6 of 15 (40) 12 of 46 (26.1) 1.593 (0.7–3.8) 0.340
 GCs before pregnancy 8 of 22 (36.4) 17 of 53 (32.1) 1.143 (0.6–2.4) 0.790 1 of 15 (6.7) 4 of 46 (8.7) 0.800 (0.1–4.9) 0.642
 GCs during first trimester 8 of 22 (36.4) 17 of 53 (32.1) 1.143 (0.6–2.4) 0.790 1 of 15 (6.7) 6 of 46 (13) 0.551 (0.1–3.6) 0.178
 DMARDs before pregnancy 10 of 22 (45.5) 22 of 53 (41.5) 1.120 (0.6–2.3) 0.801 3 of 15 (20) 5 of 46 (10.9) 1.656 (0.6–4.6) 0.589
 DMARDs during first trimester 8 of 22 (36.4) 22 of 53 (42.5) 0.860 (0.4–1.8) 0.798 2 of 15 (13.3) 3 of 46 (6.5) 1.723 (0.5–5.6) 0.589
 NSAIDs before pregnancy 2 of 22 (9.1) 6 of 53 (11.3) 0.838 (0.2–2.9) 0.568 3 of 15 (20) 15 of 46 (32.6) 0.597 (0.2–1.9) 0.518
 NSAIDs during first trimester 3 of 22 (13.6) 6 of 53 (11.3) 1.158 (0.4–3.1) 0.716 3 of 15 (20) 15 of 46 (32.6) 0.597 (0.2–1.9) 0.518
Disease activity
 Active disease before pregnancya 5 of 22 (22.7) 9 of 53 (17.0) 1.282 (0.6–2.9) 0.536 2 of 15 (13.3) 4 of 46 (8.7) 1.410 (0.4–4.8) 0.630
 Active disease during first trimester 8 of 22 (36.4) 10 of 53 (18.9) 0.456 (0.2–0.9) 0.038* 5 of 15 (33.3) 11 of 46 (23.9) 0.717 (0.3–1.7) 0.510
 Elevated CRP before pregnancya 3 of 22 (13.6) 8 of 53 (15.1) 0.584 (0.3–1.3) 0.282 1 of 15 (6.7) 2 of 46 (4.3) 0.724 (0.1–3.8) 0.718
 Elevated CRP during first trimester 9 of 22 (40.9) 12 of 53 (22.6) 0.553 (0.2–0.7) 0.008* 7 of 15 (46.7) 6 of 46 (13) 0.280 (0.1–0.7) 0.006*
  1. Abbreviations: axSpA Axial spondyloarthritis, CRP C-reactive protein, DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, GC Glucocorticosteroid, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, RR Relative risk, SpA Spondyloarthritis, TNFi Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor
  2. a“Before pregnancy” refers to period from 20 weeks prior to conception until the positive pregnancy test
  3. * p <0.05