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Table 3 Baseline all-cause healthcare resource utilization and cost characteristics (postmatching)

From: Costs associated with failure to respond to treatment among patients with rheumatoid arthritis initiating TNFi therapy: a retrospective claims analysis

  Responders (n = 2337) Nonresponders (n = 2337) p Valuea Standardized differenceb
Inpatient hospitalization, n (%) with at least one visit 197 (8.4%) 249 (10.7%) 0.010 0.08
ED encounters, n (%) with at least one visit 374 (16.0%) 418 (17.9%) 0.086 0.05
Outpatient visits, n (%) with at least one visit 2332 (99.8%) 2332 (99.8%) 1.000 0.00
 Rheumatologist office visit, n (%) 1692 (72.4%) 1623 (69.4%) 0.026 0.07
 Physical/occupational therapy visits, n (%) 506 (21.7%) 530 (22.7%) 0.398 0.03
Pharmacy fills, n (%) with at least one fill 2298 (98.3%) 2309 (98.8%) 0.176 0.04
 Oral glucocorticoids 1579 (67.6%) 1699 (72.7%) <0.001 0.11
 Antihypertensives 887 (38.0%) 974 (41.7%) 0.009 0.08
 Antidiabetics 206 (8.8%) 184 (7.9%) 0.245 0.03
 Antihyperlipidemics 512 (21.9%) 497 (21.3%) 0.594 0.02
 Antidepressives 537 (23.0%) 643 (27.5%) <0.001 0.11
 Pain medicationsc 1853 (79.3%) 1891 (80.9%) 0.164 0.04
Number of pharmacy fills per patient, mean (SD) 40.7 (28.11) 43.9 (30.59) <0.001 0.11
csDMARDs, n (%) with at least one fill 2135 (91.4%) 2135 (91.4%) 1.000 0.00
 Hydroxychloroquine 701 (30.0%) 658 (28.2%) 0.166 0.04
 Leflunomide 301 (12.9%) 322 (13.8%) 0.366 0.03
 Methotrexate 1849 (79.1%) 1854 (79.3%) 0.857 0.01
 Minocycline 27 (1.2%) 25 (1.1%) 0.780 0.01
 Sulfasalazine 266 (11.4%) 270 (11.6%) 0.854 0.01
Total medical costs, $ per person, mean (SD) 6819 (14,807) 7730 (15,929) 0.043 0.06
 Inpatient costs, $ per person, mean (SD) 1927 (10,790) 2068 (10,636) 0.653 0.01
 ED costs, $ per person, mean (SD) 242 (938) 336 (1527) 0.012 0.07
 Outpatient costs, $ per person, mean (SD) 4638 (7152) 5313 (9501) 0.006 0.08
Total pharmacy costs, $ per person, mean (SD) 1639 (2433) 1799 (3020) 0.046 0.06
  1. csDMARD Conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, ED Emergency department
  2. a χ2 tests were used to determine a statistical differences across categorical variables; t tests were used for continuous variables
  3. b Standardized difference = difference in means or proportions divided by standard error, in absolute value
  4. c Pain medications include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others, and exclude disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs