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Table 4 All-cause healthcare resource utilization during 1-year follow-up

From: Costs associated with failure to respond to treatment among patients with rheumatoid arthritis initiating TNFi therapy: a retrospective claims analysis

  Responders (n = 2337), n (%)/mean (SD) Nonresponders (n = 2337), n (%)/Mean (SD) p Valuea
Inpatient hospitalization, n (%) with at least one visit 149 (6.4%) 297 (12.7%) <0.001
 Joint replacement surgeries, n (%) 29 (1.2%) 51 (2.2%) 0.013
 Infections, n (%) 27 (1.2%) 83 (3.6%) <0.001
 CV events, n (%) 24 (1.0%) 25 (1.1%) 0.886
ED encounters, n (%) with at least one visit 278 (11.9%) 461 (19.7%) <0.001
Outpatient visits, n (%) with at least one visit 2334 (99.9%) 2326 (99.5%) 0.032
Physician office visit, n (%) 2329 (99.7%) 2324 (99.4%) 0.274
Rheumatologist office visit, n (%) 1706 (73.0%) 1638 (70.1%) 0.027
Physical/occupational therapy visits, n (%) 390 (16.7%) 512 (21.9%) <0.001
DME claims, n (%) 400 (17.1%) 578 (24.7%) <0.001
Imagingb claims, n (%) 1676 (71.7%) 1803 (77.2%) <0.001
Pharmacy fills, n (%) with at least one fill 2330 (99.7%) 2331 (99.7%) 0.781
 Oral glucocorticoids 1040 (44.5%) 1463 (62.6%) <0.001
 Antihypertensives 919 (39.3%) 1017 (43.5%) 0.004
 Antidiabetics 208 (8.9%) 201 (8.6%) 0.717
 Antihyperlipidemics 525 (22.5%) 524 (22.4%) 0.972
 Antidepressives 541 (23.1%) 700 (30.0%) <0.001
 Pain medicationsc 1542 (66.0%) 1739 (74.4%) <0.001
Number of pharmacy fills per patient, mean (SD) 49.4 (29.44) 50.9 (33.12) 0.109
csDMARDs, n (%) with at least one fill 1945 (83.2%) 1937 (82.9%) 0.755
 Hydroxychloroquine 504 (21.6%) 538 (23.0%) 0.232
 Leflunomide 219 (9.4%) 277 (11.9%) 0.006
 Methotrexate 1607 (68.8%) 1596 (68.3%) 0.729
 Minocycline 18 (0.8%) 20 (0.9%) 0.745
 Sulfasalazine 152 (6.5%) 173 (7.4%) 0.227
Biologics, n (%) with at least one fill 2080 (89.0%) 2088 (89.3%) 0.706
 Adalimumab 586 (25.1%) 840 (35.9%) <0.001
 Certolizumab pegol 20 (0.9%) 65 (2.8%) <0.001
 Etanercept 1418 (60.7%) 1512 (64.7%) 0.004
 Golimumab 48 (2.1%) 98 (4.2%) <0.001
 Infliximab 8 (0.3%) 14 (0.6%) 0.200
 Abatacept 0 (0%) 42 (1.8%) <0.001
 Anakinra 0 (0%) 3 (0.1%) 0.083
 Rituximab 0 (0%) 2 (0.1%) 0.157
 Tocilizumab 0 (0%) 7 (0.3%) 0.008
 Tofacitinib citrate 0 (0%) 13 (0.6%) <0.001
Number of csDMARD pharmacy fills per patient, mean (SD) 7.8 (6.14) 7.1 (5.96) <0.001
Number of biologic pharmacy fills per patient, mean (SD) 9.5 (4.62) 6.1 (4.25) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ACS Acute coronary syndrome, csDMARD Conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CV Cardiovascular, DME Durable medical equipment, ED Emergency department, RA Rheumatoid arthritis, TIA Transient ischemic attack
  2. Joint replacement surgeries include knee, hip, shoulder, and other surgeries. CV events include ACS, coronary revascularization, ischemic stroke, and TIA
  3. a χ2 tests were used to determine statistical differences across categorical variables; t tests were used for continuous variables
  4. b Imaging included radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and other types of imaging
  5. c Pain medications include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and others, and exclude disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs