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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and control subjects

From: HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in rheumatoid arthritis patients: contributing factors and relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis

  Control subjects (n = 223) Patients with RA (n = 178) p Value
Age, years 59 ± 9 55 ± 11 0.000
Female sex, n (%) 155 (70) 140 (79) 0.063
Body mass index, kg/m2 28 ± 5 28 ± 5 0.74
Abdominal circumference, cm 93 ± 14 97 ± 13 0.006
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 133 ± 15 137 ± 19 0.018
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 82 ± 10 83 ± 12 0.36
Cardiovascular comorbidity
 Smoking, n (%) 45 (20) 29 (16) 0.29
 Diabetes, n (%) 10 (4) 27 (15) 0.000
 Hypertension, n (%) 64 (29) 62 (35) 0.22
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 41 (18) 71 (40) 0.000
 Antihypertensive treatment, n (%) 38 (17) 63 (35) 0.000
 Statins, n (%) 22 (10) 60 (34) 0.000
 Hormone replacement therapy, n (%) 7 (3) 0 (0) 0.018
Laboratory examinations, including lipid profile
 ESR, mm/h 10 ± 8 35 ± 22 0.000
 CRP, mg/dl 1.0 (1.0–3.0) 3.3 (1.6–6.1) 0.34
 Cholesterol, mg/dl 218 ± 39 206 ± 37 0.001
 Triglycerides, mg/dl 105 ± 52 151 ± 92 0.000
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl 63 ± 17 56 ± 16 0.000
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl 134 ± 36 120 ± 33 0.000
 Lipoprotein A, mg/dl 16 (9–35) 33 (10–121) 0.000
 Apolipoprotein A, mg/dl 191 ± 35 170 ± 28 0.000
 Apolipoprotein B, mg/dl 102 ± 24 109 ± 59 0.13
 ApoB/ApoA ratio 0.55 ± 0.16 0.65 ± 0.29 0.000
 Atherogenic index 3.72 ± 1.14 4.02 ± 1.51 0.036
 Cholesterol efflux capacity, % 16.9 ± 10.4 18.9 ± 9.0 0.11
Rheumatoid arthritis-related data
 Disease duration, years   7 (4–15)  
 Age at onset, years   45 ± 13
 DAS28   3.74 ± 1.19
 Remission, n (%)   38 (21)
  Low activity, n (%)   29 (16)
  Moderate activity, n (%)   84 (47)
  High activity, n (%)   27 (15)
 DAS28-CRP   2.94 ± 0.99
 SDAI   14 (8–21)
 CDAI   82 (40–112)
 Rheumatoid factor, n (%)   119 (67)
 ACPA, n (%)   98 (55)
 Prednisone intake, n (%)   62 (35)
 Prednisone dose, mg/day   5 (3–6)
 NSAIDs, n (%)   78 (44)
 DMARDs, n (%)   153 (86)
 Methotrexate, n (%)   135 (76)
 Leflunomide, n (%)   19 (11)
 Biologic therapy, n (%)   41 (23)
 Anti-TNF-α therapy, n (%)   23 (13)
 Tocilizumab, n (%)   11 (6)
 Rituximab, n (%)   5 (3)
 Abatacept, n (%)   2 (1)
Carotid assessments
 CIMT, mm   0.671 ± 0.143  
 Carotid plaque, n (%)   66 (37)
  1. Data represent mean (SD) or median (IQR) when data were not normally distributed
  2. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, HDL High-density lipoprotein, SDAI Simplified Disease Activity Index, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, ACPA Anticitrullinated protein antibody, CIMT Carotid intima-media thickness. Significant 'p' values are higlighted in italics