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Table 2 Univariate relationship of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and rheumatoid arthritis-related data with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity in control subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis

From: HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in rheumatoid arthritis patients: contributing factors and relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis

  Control subjects Patients with RA
Percent efflux β coefficient (95% CI) p Value Percent efflux β coefficient (95% CI) p Value
Age, years −0.9 (−0.4 to 0.2) 0.50 −0.2 (−0.2 to 0.1) 0.78
Male sex −0.9 (−4.6 to 2.8) 0.62 −6.1 (−9.4 to 2.8) 0.000
Body mass index −0.2 (−0.6 to 0.1) 0.20 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5) 0.21
Abdominal circumference −0.1 (−0.2 to 0.0) 0.058 0.0 (−0.1 to 0.2) 0.42
Systolic blood pressure −0.1 (−0.2 to 0.0) 0.025 0.1 (−0.0 to 0.2) 0.11
Diastolic blood pressure −0.0 (-0.1 to 0.0) 0.29 0.01 (−0.0 to 0.2) 0.15
Cardiovascular comorbidities
 Smoking 1.8 (−2.4 to 6.0) 0.40 −0.3 (−4.5 to 3.9) 0.89
 Diabetes 1.2 (−5.9 to 8.3) 0.74 2.9 (−1.3 to 7.2) 0.17
 Hypertension −2.4 (−6.0 to 1.1) 0.17 0.1 (−3.0 to 3.2) 0.95
 Dyslipidemia −1.1 (−5.2 to 3.1) 0.61 −0.3 (−3.4 to 2.8) 0.85
 Antihypertensive treatment 0.7 (−3.6 to 5.0) 0.75 0.4 (−2.7 to 3.5) 0.80
 Statins −2.1 (−7.4 to 3.2) 0.44 0.6 (−2.6 to 3.8) 0.70
Laboratory examinations, including lipid profile
 ESR −0.2 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.23 −0.1 (−0.1 to 0.0) 0.12
 CRP −0.3 (−0.6 to 0.0) 0.092 −0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.83
 Cholesterol 0.0 (−0.0 to 0.1) 0.11 0.00 (−0.0 to 0.00) 0.69
 Triglycerides −0.0 (−0.1 to 0.0) 0.19 0.0 (−0.0 to 0.0) 0.30
 HDL cholesterol 0.1 (−0.0 to 0.2) 0.092 0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.48
 LDL cholesterol 0.0 (−0.0 to 0.1) 0.32 −0.0 (−0.1 to 0.0) 0.62
 Lipoprotein A 0.1 (−0.0 to 0.1) 0.059 −0.0 (−0.0 to 0.0) 0.35
 Apolipoprotein A 0.0 (−0.0 to 0.1) 0.089 −0.0 (−0.1 to 0.0) 0.84
 Apolipoprotein B 0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.77 0.00 (−0.0 to 0.0) 0.99
 ApoB/ApoA ratio −5.8 (−16.8 to 5.4) 0.31 0.8 (−4.1 to 5.7) 0.76
 Atherogenic index 0.7 (−2.4 to 1.0) 0.41 0.0 (−1 to 1) 0.99
Rheumatoid arthritis-related data
 Disease duration    0.1 (−0.0 to 0.3) 0.12
 DAS28    −1.1 (−2.3 to 0.2) 0.086
  Remission    
  Low disease activity    −5.2 (−10.0 to 0.3) 0.039
  Moderate disease activity    −4.6 (−8.5 to 0.7) 0.020
  High disease activity    −3.2 (−8.1 to 1.7) 0.19
  Moderate and high disease activity   4.2 (−7.9 to 0.6) 0.024
 DAS28-CRP    −1.1 (−2.7 to 0.4) 0.14
 SDAI    −0.0 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.54
 CDAI    −0.0 (−0.0 to 0.0) 0.31
 Rheumatoid factor    −0.4 (−3.8 to 2.9) 0.81
 ACPA    0.4 (−2.7 to 3.6) 0.78
 Prednisone intake    −0.3 (−3.4 to 2.9) 0.88
 Prednisone dose    −0.3 (−3.4 to 2.9) 0.88
 NSAIDs    4.6 (1.5 to 7.6) 0.004
 DMARDs    −0.2 (−4.6 to 4.2) 0.93
 Methotrexate    0.5 (−2.9 to 4.0) 0.77
 Leflunomide    −1.3 (−5.9 to 3.3) 0.58
 Biologic therapy    3.57 (−0.0 to 7.2) 0.052
 Anti-TNF-α therapy    0.7 (−4.0 to 5.5) 0.76
 Tocilizumab    8.0 (2.3 to 13.7) 0.007
 Rituximab    1.3 (−9.1 to 11.7) 0.81
 Abatacept    −1.4 (−14.1 to 11.4) 0.83
  1. DAS28 relation with cholesterol efflux capability was studied using remission category as the reference category
  2. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, HDL High-density lipoprotein, SDAI Simplified Disease Activity Index, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, ACPA Anticitrullinated protein antibody, CIMT Carotid intima-media thickness, ApoA Apolipoprotein A, ApoB Apolipoprotein B. Significant 'p' values are higlighted in italics