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Table 3 Univariate relationship of characteristics of patients with rheumatoid arthritis with carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques

From: HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in rheumatoid arthritis patients: contributing factors and relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis

  Carotid plaque CIMT (×10 mm)
Patients with RA (n = 178) OR (95% CI) p Value β Coefficient (95% CI) p Value
Age 1.15 (1.10–1.20) 0.000 0.08 (0.01–0.01) 0.000
Male sex 3.00 (1.44–6.26) 0.003 1.1 (0.6–1.6) 0.000
Body mass index 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.92 0.03 (0.02–0.07) 0.23
Abdominal circumference 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 0.31 0.02 (0.00–0.03) 0.021
Systolic blood pressure 1.04 (1.02–1.06) 0.000 0.04 (0.03–0.05) 0.000
Diastolic blood pressure 1.02 (0.997–1.05) 0.078 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.009
Cardiovascular comorbidity
 Smoking 1.04 (0.46–2.37) 0.92 −0.1 (0.7 to 0.4) 0.63
 Diabetes 3.54 (1.51–8.30) 0.004 1.0 (0.04 to 1.6) 0.001
 Hypertension 2.57 (1.36–4.87) 0.004 0.6 (0.2 to 1.1) 0.005
 Dyslipidemia 3.61 (1.91–6.84) 0.000 0.4 (−0.01 to 0.8) 0.082
 Antihypertensive treatment 2.73 (1.44–5.18) 0.002 0.7 (0.2 to 1.1) 0.002
 Statins 3.93 (2.04–7.58) 0.000 0.5 (0.0 to 0.9) 0.036
Laboratory including lipid profile
 ESR 1.02 (1.01–1.04) 0.003 0.01 (0.00 to 0.02) 0.041
 CRP 0.45 (0.96–1.02) 0.45 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01) 0.947
 Cholesterol 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.83 0.00 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.16
 Triglycerides 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.13 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00) 0.034
 HDL cholesterol 0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.51 −0.01 (−0.03 to 0.00) 0.034
 LDL cholesterol 0.99 (0.99–1.01) 0.77 0.00 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.14
 Lipoprotein A 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.043 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00) 0.76
 Apolipoprotein A 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.37 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01) 0.80
 Apolipoprotein B 0.99 (0.99–1.01) 0.73 0.00 (0.00 to 0.00) 0.48
 ApoB/ApoA ratio 0.70 (0.21–2.33) 0.56 0.4 (0.4 to 1.1) 0.36
 Atherogenic index 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 0.57 0.2 (0.0 to 0.3) 0.029
Rheumatoid arthritis-related data
 Disease duration 1.02 (0.99–1.06) 0.17 0.01 (−0.01 to 0.03) 0.41
 DAS28 1.36 (1.05–1.77) 0.022 0.12 (−0.06 to 0.30) 0.18
 DAS28-CRP 1.19 (0.88–1.63) 0.26 0.08 (−0.14 to 0.29) 0.47
 SDAI 0.99 (0.98–1.02) 0.85 0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01) 0.76
 CDAI 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 0.055 0.00 (0.00 to 0.01) 0.16
 Rheumatoid factor 0.87 (0.45–1.71) 0.69 −0.5 (−1.0 to 0.0) 0.043
 ACPA 0.87 (0.46–1.63) 0.66 −0.3 (−0.8 to 0.1) 0.14
 Prednisone intake 1.11 (0.59–2.10) 0.74 0.0 (−0.4 to 0.5) 0.90
 Prednisone doses 0.99 (0.89–1.09) 0.81 −0.04 (−0.1 to 0.2) 0.20
 NSAIDs 0.40 (0.21–0.76) 0.005 −0.6 (−1.0 to 0.2) 0.005
 DMARDs 2.04 (0.77–5.41) 0.15 0.3 (−0.4 to 0.9) 0.43
 Methotrexate 0.77 (0.38–1.54) 0.46 −0.3 (−0.8 to 0.2) 0.25
 Leflunomide 2.04 (0.78–5.32) 0.14 0.9 (0.2 to 1.6) 0.010
 Biologic therapy 0.51 (0.23–1.13) 0.098 −0.2 (−0.8 to 0.3) 0.35
 Anti-TNF-α therapy 0.89 (0.36–2.23) 0.81 0.4 (−0.3 to 1.0) 0.23
 Tocilizumab 0.16 (0.02–1.26) 0.081 −0.7 (−1.6 to 0.1) 0.085
 Rituximab 0.42 (0.05–3.80) 0.44 −1.1 (−2.4 to 0.1) 0.81
 Abatacept 1.71 (0.11–27.8) 0.71 0.6 (−1.4 to 2.6) 0.55
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, LDL Low-density lipoprotein, NSAID Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; DMARD Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, HDL High-density lipoprotein, SDAI Simplified Disease Activity Index, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, ACPA Anticitrullinated protein antibody, CIMT Carotid intima-media thickness, ApoA Apolipoprotein A, ApoB Apolipoprotein B. Significant 'p' values are higlighted in italics