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Table 1 Comparison of clinical characteristics and ultrasound findings between relapse and nonrelapse patients

From: Ultrasound-detected bone erosion is a relapse risk factor after discontinuation of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis whose ultrasound power Doppler synovitis activity and clinical disease activity are well controlled

  Relapse (n = 19) Nonrelapse (n = 21) p Value
Clinical characteristics at initiation of bDMARD
 Positivity of RF, n 16 (84.2) 18 (85.7) 0.89
 Positivity of ACPA, n 18 (94.7) 19 (90.5) 0.61
 DAS28-ESR 4.76 (3.99–5.15) 4.02 (3.60–5.09) 0.26
 SDAI 19.6 (15.2–26.1) 14.7 (11.1–24.6) 0.19
 CDAI 18 (13.5–24.5) 14.4 (11.0–20.8) 0.28
Clinical characteristics at discontinuation of bDMARD
 Age, years 55 (46–61) 53 (41–61) 0.95
 Female sex 14 (73.7) 19 (86.4) 0.16
 Duration of disease, years 5.0 (1.4–8.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 0.54
 Positivity of RF, n 11 (64.7) 12 (57.1) 0.74
 bDMARD use, n IFX, 8; ADA, 5; CZP, 1; ETN, 2; TCZ, 2; ABT, 1 IFX, 6; ADA, 2; GLM, 4; CZP, 1; ETN, 1; TCZ, 5; ABT, 2  
 TNF inhibitor use, n 16 (84.2) 14 (66.7) 0.20
 Concomitant MTX, n 17 (89.5) 16 (76.2) 0.27
 Duration of bDMARD therapy, months 12 (10–23) 12 (10–21) 0.75
 Duration until clinical remission, months 3 (1–5) 3 (2–4) 0.95
 Duration of clinical remission, months 8 (7–16) 9 (6–12) 0.80
 Tender joint counts, n/28 joints 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.33
 Swollen joint counts, n/28 joints 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.61
 PtGA, mm 3 (2–7) 4 (2–8) 0.62
 EGA, mm 3 (2–4) 4 (2–5) 0.39
 CRP, mg/dl 0.05 (0.03–0.05) 0.05 (0.05–0.09) 0.41
 ESR, mm/h 11 (8–15) 7 (5–14) 0.44
 MMP-3, ng/ml 35 (26–58) 33 (28–49) 0.77
 DAS28-ESR 1.73 (1.29–2.01) 1.57 (1.20–2.02) 0.76
 SDAI 0.9 (0.5–1.2) 0.8 (0.5–3.0) 0.58
 CDAI 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 0.7 (0.4–2.7) 0.62
 HAQ-DI 0 (0–0.1) 0 (0) 0.67
Ultrasound findings
 Positivity of GS, n 10 (52.6) 14 (66.7) 0.37
 Total GS score 2 (0–4) 2 (0–4) 0.65
 Positivity of PD, n 5 (26.3) 3 (14.3) 0.34
 Total PD score 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.45
 Positivity of bone erosion, n 10 (52.6) 3 (14.3) 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: ACPA Anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, bDMARD Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, EGA Evaluator global assessment, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, GS Grayscale, HAQ-DI Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, MMP-3 Matrix metalloproteinase-3, MTX Methotrexate, PD Power Doppler, PtGA Patient global assessment, RF Rheumatoid factor, SDAI Simplified Disease Activity Index TNF Tumor necrosis factor, IFX Infliximab, ADA Adalimumab, CZP Certolizumab pegol, TCZ Tocilizumab, ABT Abatacept, GLM Golimumab
  2. The data are median (interquartile range, Q1-4–Q3/4) or as number (percent)