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Table 3 Factors associated with carotid plaques in SLE patients

From: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T is a biomarker for atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematous patients: a cross-sectional controlled study

  No carotid plaque
(n = 40)
Carotid plaque
(n = 23)
p value
Age, years 36 (29–59) 44 (30–63) <0.001
Female gender, n (%) 34 (85) 18 (78.3) 0.497
10-Year cardiovascular riska, % 1 (1–9) 1.5 (1–18) 0.002
Overweightb 9 (22.5) 15 (65.2) <0.001
eGFRc, ml/min/1.73 m2 96 (56–127) 76 (54–122) 0.294
HbA1c, % 5.4 (4.4–6.7) 5.5 (5–6.4) 0.336
Detectable HS-cTnTd 17 (42.5) 20 (87) <0.001
Proteinuria/creatininuria, mg/mmol 18.7 (5–558) 22.7 (5–234) 0.425
Duration of SLE disease, years 11 (1–34) 14 (4–37) 0.138
SELENA-SLEDAI score 2 (0–13) 2 (0–8) 0.593
Lupus nephritise, n (%) 19 (47.5) 14 (60.8) 0.306
AP antibodiesf, n (%) 13 (32.5) 9 (39.1) 0.595
APS, n (%) 4 (10) 4 (17.4) 0.396
Cumulative years of steroid treatment, years 6.5 (0–16) 10 (0–21) 0.075
Hormonal contraceptiong, n (%) 12/34 (35.3) 3/18 (16.7) 0.158
Hydroxychloroquine, n (%) 40 (100) 22 (95/6) 0.184
Immunosuppressive therapyh, n (%) 28 (70) 19 (82.6) 0.421
  1. Results are shown as median (range) or number (percentage)
  2. Analysis was performed on 63 subjects
  3. a10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham equation
  4. bOverweight was defined as a body mass index >25 kg/m2
  5. cEstimated glomerular filtration rate (eGRF) was calculated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation
  6. dDetectable HS-cTnT referred to a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-cTnT) serum level >3 ng/L
  7. eLupus nephritis was class III or class IV
  8. fAntiphospholipid (AP) antibodies included lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin, or β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies
  9. gHormonal contraception was progestin-only pill in all cases
  10. hImmunosuppressive drugs included cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate, or rituximab
  11. APS antiphospholipid syndrome, HbA1c haemoglobin A1c, SELENA Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index
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