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Table 3 Predictors of first-time NL in patients with gout and GP controls, analyzed by age- and sex-adjusted proportional hazards analyses

From: Incidence of and risk factors for nephrolithiasis in patients with gout and the general population, a cohort study

Variable Gout cases GP controls
(N = 29,171) (N = 131,449)
(95% HR) (95% HR)
Male sex 1.56 (1.21‒2.02)b 1.98 (1.72‒2.27)b
Hypertension 1.11 (0.89‒1.38) 1.11 (0.98‒1.25)
Ischemic heart disease 0.97 (0.74‒1.27) 1.18 (1.00‒1.38)
Diabetes 1.57 (1.21‒2.02) 1.19 (0.99‒1.43)
Kidney disease 1.32 (0.94‒1.86) 1.87 (1.40‒2.49)
Obesity 1.55 (1.13‒2.12) 1.27 (0.92‒1.75)
Calcium antagonists 1.18 (0.89‒1.56) 1.14 (0.96‒1.36)
Thiazide diuretics 1.21 (0.77‒1.90) 1.00 (0.72‒1.38)
Potassium-sparing diuretics 0.58 (0.31‒1.10) 0.74 (0.44‒1.23)
RAAS-inhibitorsa 1.13 (0.89‒1.45) 1.15 (0.97‒1.35)
Losartan 0.61 (0.29‒1.29) 1.49 (1.03‒2.14)
Loop diuretics 0.71 (0.52‒0.96) 0.73 (0.56‒0.95)
Statins 1.06 (0.84‒1.33) 1.28 (1.12‒1.47)
Beta blockers 0.86 (0.68‒1.09) 1.07 (0.93‒1.23)
Allopurinol 1.01 (0.80‒1.28) N/Ac
Education (≤9) years (ref) Ref Ref
 Education (10‒12) years 1.06 (0.84‒1.33) 0.99 (0.87‒1.12)
 Education (>12) years 0.98 (0.72‒1.34) 0.92 (0.79‒1.07)
Age 20‒29 years (ref) Ref Ref
 Age 30‒39 years 1.06 (0.37‒2.99)d 0.95 (0.49‒1.83)d
 Age 40‒49 years 1.19 (0.37‒3.80)d 1.34 (0.67‒2.67)d
 Age 50‒59 years 1.42 (0.35‒5.74)d 1.44 (0.65‒3.19)d
 Age 60‒69 years 1.47 (0.28‒7.86)d 1.80 (0.72‒4.55)d
 Age 70‒79 years 1.48 (0.20‒10.82)d 1.71 (0.58‒5.01)d
 Age 80‒89 years 1.35 (0.14‒13.37)d 1.33 (0.39‒4.54)d
 Age 90‒99 years 0.37 (0.02‒9.46)d 1.22 (0.28‒5.28)d
  1. NL, nephrolithiasis, GP general population, HR hazard ratio, RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system, N/A not applicable
  2. aExcluding losartan
  3. bAge-adjusted
  4. cPrior users of urate-lowering therapy were excluded from the control group
  5. dSex-adjusted