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Table 1 Advantages of various ANA immunoassay techniques

From: Emerging technologies in autoantibody testing for rheumatic diseases

Assay Type Low cost Rapid Automated Sensitivity Specificity Quantitative Availability Reproducibility High throughput Small sample volume
IIF + + (++)* ++ + ++ ++ + +
ELISA ++ ++ ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +
LIA ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + + ++
ALBIA, CIA, other bead-based arrays ++ +++ +++ +++ ++ +++ ++ + +++ +++
Planar array ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ ++
Point-of-Care + +++ + ++ + ++ +
  1. *Automated antinuclear antibody (ANA)-indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), and Crithidia luciliae fluorescent test (anti-dsDNA; CLIFT) used in some laboratories
  2. ALBIA addressable laser bead immunoassays, CIA chemiluminescence immunoassay, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, LIA line immunoassay