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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of case and control subjects

From: Assessing risk of liver enzyme elevation in patients with immune-mediated diseases and different hepatitis B virus serostatus receiving anti-TNF agents: a nested case-control study

  Cases (n = 30) Controls (n = 338) p value
HBV infection status <0.001
 HBsAg+ 8 (22.7%) 21 (6.2%)  
 HBsAg/HBcAb+ 14 (46.7%) 210 (62.1%)
 Uninfected 8 (26.7%) 107 (31.7%)
Sex 0.617
 Female 20 (66.7%) 240 (71.0%)  
 Male 10 (33.3%) 98 (29.0%)
Age (years), mean ± SD 46.6 ± 15.9 52.2 ± 15.2 0.001
Immune-mediated disease 0.011
 Rheumatoid arthritis 19 (63.3%) 268 (79.3%)  
 Ankylosing spondylitis 7 (23.3%) 42 (12.4%)
 Psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis 4 (13.3%) 28 (8.3%)
Year anti-TNF therapy began 0.038
 2004–2006 6 (20.0%) 31 (9.2%)  
 2007–2009 10 (33.3%) 135 (39.9%)
 2010–2012 14 (46.7%) 172 (50.9%)
Medical history of elevated ALT 8 (26.7%) 18 (5.3%) <0.001
Immunosuppressant drug use
 Prednisolone 21 (70.0%) 246 (72.8%) 0.744
 Methotrexate 21 (70.0%) 243 (71.9%) 0.825
 Methotrexate alone, without folic acid 9 (30.0%) 28 (8.3%) <0.001
 Methotrexate + folic acid 12 (40.0%) 215 (63.6%)
 Hydroxychloroquine 13 (43.3%) 209 (61.8%) 0.047
 Sulfasalazine 18 (60.0%) 222 (65.7%) 0.531
 Cyclosporine 4 (13.3%) 55 (16.3%) 0.674
 Leflunomide 2 (6.7%) 30 (8.9%) 0.681
 Azathioprine 1 (3.3%) 1 (0.3%) 0.030
Immunosuppressant drug dose received (mg), mean ± SD
 Methotrexate dose
  6-month accumulated 197.7 ± 148.8 210.0 ± 149.2 0.665
  Total accumulated 1160.7 ± 1263.3 1445.5 ± 1390.7 0.280
 Prednisolone dose
  6-month accumulated 837.8 ± 551.1 830.9 ± 679.5 0.957
  Total accumulated 6679.5 ± 6510.5 7482.9 ± 7879.2 0.588
  1. Values are shown as n (%) unless otherwise stated
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, HBcAb + HBV core antibody positive, HBsAg + / HBV surface antigen positive/negative, HBV hepatitis B virus, SD standard deviation, TNF tumour necrosis factor