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Table 2 Univariate and bivariate analyses of HBV infection status and ALT elevation

From: Assessing risk of liver enzyme elevation in patients with immune-mediated diseases and different hepatitis B virus serostatus receiving anti-TNF agents: a nested case-control study

Analysis model (n = 368)   HBsAg+ vs uninfected HBsAg/HBcAb+ vs uninfected
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Model 1 (univariate analysis): HBV infection status 5.05 (1.68–15.42) 0.97 (0.40–2.51)
Model 2 (bivariate analysis): HBV infection status adjusted for each confounder:
 Sex (female vs male) 1.21 (0.48–3.26) 5.03 (1.68–15.28) 0.96 (0.40–2.48)
 Age (10-year intervals) 0.81 (0.59–1.11) 6.41 (1.99–21.57) 1.29 (0.47–3.77)
 History of elevated ALTa 9.66 (3.24–28.83) 4.83 (1.54–15.37) 0.79 (0.30–2.11)
 Prednisolone 1.62 (0.62–4.58) 5.29 (1.75–16.22) 0.97 (0.40–2.48)
 Methotrexatea   4.86 (1.58–15.06) 0.77 (0.30–2.04)
  Methotrexate alone 6.95 (1.70–29.65)
  Methotrexate + folic acid 1.17 (0.38–3.82)
 Hydroxychloroquine 0.79 (0.30–2.21) 4.95 (1.65–15.06) 0.97 (0.40–2.51)
 Sulfasalazine 0.66 (0.30–1.48 5.48 (1.79–17.14) 1.02 (0.42–2.65)
 Cyclosporine 1.05 (0.30–3.05) 5.02 (1.67–15.29) 0.97 (0.40–2.51)
 Leflunomide 0.75 (0.13–2.82) 5.13 (1.71–15.59) 0.98 (0.40–2.50)
 Azathioprine 0.13 (0.01–1.78) 5.43 (1.80-16.65) 1.02 (0.42–2.62)
 Methotrexate 6-month accumulated dose 1.21 (0.89–1.68) 5.57 (1.82–17.38) 0.98 (0.41–2.53)
 Methotrexate total accumulated dose 0.99 (0.96–1.03) 4.97 (1.65–15.15) 0.98 (0.40–2.53)
 Prednisolone 6-month accumulated dose 1.15 (0.64–1.96) 5.15 (1.70–15.83) 0.98 (0.40–2.52)
 Prednisolone total accumulated dose 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 5.00 (1.67–15.20) 0.97 (0.40–2.51)
  1. a Confounding factors with statistical significance
  2. ALT alanine aminotransferase, CI confidence interval, HBcAb + HBV core antibody positive, HBsAg +/ HBV surface antigen positive/negative, HBV hepatitis B virus, OR odds ratio