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Table 3 Serum bone biomarker concentrations compared between disease groups

From: Serum bone-turnover biomarkers are associated with the occurrence of peripheral and axial arthritis in psoriatic disease: a prospective cross-sectional comparative study

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Odds ratio per ng/mL increase in concentration 95% CI p value odds ratio per ng/mL increase in concentration 95% CI p value
  PsA vs. PsC cases
Dkk-1 1.16 1.03, 1.32 0.02 1.14* 0.99, 1.31 0.07
M-CSF 0.23 0.13, 0.39 <1 × 10−7 0.44* 0.24, 0.82 0.01
MMP-3 1.01 1.00, 1.03 0.03 1.02* 1.01, 1.03 4 × 10−4
OPG 2.36 0.80, 6.92 0.12 2.51* 0.68, 9.28 0.17
  RAD vs. non-RAD cases
Dkk-1 1.23 1.06, 1.44 0.01 1.22** 1.05, 1.42 0.01
M-CSF 0.60 0.31, 1.17 0.13 0.64** 0.32, 1.26 0.19
MMP-3 1.01 1.00, 1.02 0.20 1.00** 1.00, 1.01 0.30
OPG 0.17 0.05, 0.62 0.01 0.20** 0.05, 0.80 0.02
  AS vs. PsSpA cases
Dkk-1 1.15 1.01, 1.30 0.04 1.18**** 1.02, 1.35 0.02
M-CSF 1.16 0.50, 2.78 0.72 1.28**** 0.52, 3.22 0.59
MMP-3 1.00 1.00, 1.01 0.24 1.00**** 1.00, 1.01 0.17
OPG 0.22 0.03, 1.54 0.13 0.31**** 0.04, 2.27 0.25
  PsSpA vs. pPsA cases
Dkk-1 1.08 0.95, 1.23 0.26 1.06*** 0.95, 1.19 0.28
M-CSF 0.55 0.25, 1.21 0.14 0.50*** 0.22, 1.11 0.09
MMP-3 1.01 0.99, 1.02 0.31 1.00*** 0.99, 1.02 0.73
OPG 0.30 0.08, 1.15 0.08 0.28*** 0.06, 1.18 0.08
  1. All models were adjusted potentially for sex, age, disease duration, anti-TNF use, and where appropriate psoriasis, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Severity Score (ASDAS), body mass index and RAD)
  2. PsSpA psoriatic spondyloarthritis (n = 118), PsA psoriatic arthritis (n = 201), pPsA peripheral-only PsA (n = 127), AS ankylosing spondylitis (n = 157), RAD radiographic axial disease (n = 274), Dkk-1 Dickkopf 1, OPG osteoprotegerin, MMP-3 matrix metalloproteinase 3, M-CSF macrophage colony stimulating factor, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  3. *Multivariable logistic regression (reduced model adjusted for age, disease duration, and the Psoriatic Arthritis Spondylitis Radiology Index
  4. **Multivariable logistic regression (reduced model adjusted for sex, age, and disease duration)
  5. ***Multivariable logistic regression (reduced model adjusted for the ASDAS)
  6. ****Multivariable logistic regression (reduced model adjusted for sex, age, and disease duration)