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Table 6 Comparison of clinical characteristics between participants and patients who declined participation in the prospective substudy

From: Patient-provider discordance between global assessments of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a comprehensive clinical evaluation

Characteristic Participants (n = 70) Nonparticipants (n = 70) P value
Study group .70
 Discordant 50 (71) 51 (73)  
 Concordant, MHDA 10 (14) 7 (10)  
 Concordant, LDA 10 (14) 12 (17)  
Age, years 63 (51–71) 59 (53–71) .52
Sex .56
 Female 51 (73) 54 (77)  
 Male 19 (27) 16 (23)  
Highest level of schooling completed .46
 Information missing 5 6  
 Grade 8 or less 0 (0) 1 (2)  
 Some high school but did not graduate 4 (6) 3 (5)  
 High school graduation or GED 15 (23) 23 (36)  
 Some college or 2-year degree 25 (38) 21 (33)  
 4-year college degree 10 (15) 10 (16)  
 Postgraduate studies 11 (17) 6 (9)  
Residence .32
 Minnesota 70 (100) 69 (99)  
 Iowa 0 (0) 1 (1)  
 Rochester, Minnesota 29 (41) 28 (41) .92
Provider type .38
 Attending physician 20 (29) 18 (26)  
 Fellow 1 (1) 4 (6)  
 NP/PA 49 (70) 48 (69)  
Comorbidity
 BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 (19.5–47.7) 28.9 (26.2–34.1) .91
 Degenerative joint disease 41 (59) 35 (50) .31
 Fibromyalgia 12 (17) 5 (7) .07
 Obstructive sleep apnea 9 (13) 10 (14) .81
 Depression 23 (33) 21 (30) .72
 Anxiety 6 (9) 7 (10) .77
Disease activity assessment
 Tender joint count 0.5 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0–5.0) .98
 Swollen joint count 0 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0–4.0) .53
 HAQ-II disability index, 0–3 0.7 (0.3–1.1) 0.7 (0.0–1.3) .75
 Pain, 100 mm VAS 54 (23–68) 52 (25–70) .87
 Patient global assessment, 0–100 49 (29–60) 50 (30–70) .25
 Provider global assessment, 0–100 15 (0–80) 15 (0–100) .71
 DAS28-CRP 2.8 (2.4–3.5) 3.6 (2.5–4.6) .33
 CDAI 9.8 (5.7–17.7) 11.1 (6.0–17.4) .69
CDAI Categories .47
  Remission 10 (14) 6 (9)  
  LDA 28 (40) 26 (37)  
  MDA 21 (30) 29 (41)  
  HDA 11 (16) 9 (13)  
Laboratory testing
 Rheumatoid factor positivity 36 (53) 52 (76) .004
 Anti-CCP positivity 33 (53) 47 (73) .02
 ANA positivity 18 (31) 13 (23) .35
 CRP at index visit, mg/L 2.9 (1.6–46.1) 5.3 (2.9–11.0) .003
 Abnormal CRP concentration (≥ 8 mg/L) 11 (19) 20 (36) .04
 ESR at index visit, mm/h 9 (3–17) 10 (3,–21) .50
 Abnormal ESR (i.e., > 22 male and > 29 female) 6 (11) 11 (20) .22
 Radiographic erosion present 24 (35) 37 (54) .03
Medication
 Prednisone 25 (36) 39 (56) .02
 Methotrexate 51 (73) 41 (59) .08
 Nonmethotrexate DMARD 27 (39) 25 (36) .73
 TNF inhibitor 18 (26) 19 (27) .85
 Any biologic 21 (30) 31 (44) .08
 Opioid 16 (23) 18 (26) .31
 Tramadol 7 (10) 12 (17) .22
 Gabapentin 9 (13) 4 (6) .15
 Pregabalin 1 (1) 0 (0) .31
 Duloxetine 2 (3) 2 (3) > .99
 Fibromyalgia medication 12 (17) 6 (9) .13
 NSAID 26 (37) 35 (50) .13
 Sleep aid 11 (16) 7 (10) .31
 Antidepressant or anxiolytic 18 (26) 22 (31) .45
 DMARD modification at index visit? .10
  No 59 (84) 51 (73)  
  Yes 11 (16) 19 (27)  
  1. Values are presented as median (interquartile range) or number (percentage) of patients
  2. Significant results are indicated in bold typeface
  3. ANA antinuclear antibodies, anti-CCP anticyclic citrullinated peptide, BMI body mass index, CDAI Clinical Disease Activity Index, CRP C-reactive protein, DAS28-CRP Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C-reactive protein, DMARD disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, GED general education development, HAQ-II Health Assessment Questionnaire II, HDA high disease activity, LDA low disease activity, MDA moderate disease activity, MHDA moderate-to-high disease activity, NP nurse practitioner, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PA physician assistant, TNF tumor necrosis factor, VAS visual analog scale