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Table 3 Association and additive interaction between smoking and anti-viral antibodies in ACPA-positive RA

From: Low levels of antibodies against common viruses associate with anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis; implications for disease aetiology

Factors Cases (%) Controls (%) OR (95% CI)a
Smoking EBV    
- highb 20 (3.82) 55 (9.06) 1.0 ref
- lowc 126 (24.09) 197 (32.45) 1.6 (0.9–2.8)
+ high 73 (13.96) 96 (15.82) 2.1 (1.1–3.9)
+ low 304 (58.13) 259 (42.67) 3.2 (1.9 − 5.6)
AP (95% CI)   0.2 (-0.2–0.5)   
Smoking B19    
- high 18 (3.44) 61 (10.05) 1.0 ref
- low 128 (24.47) 191 (31.47) 2.3 (1.3–4.1)
+ high 69 (13.19) 89 (14.66) 2.8 (1.5–5.2)
+ low 308 (58.89) 266 (43.82) 4.4 (2.5–7.7)
AP (95% CI)   0.1 (-0.3–0.4)   
Smoking CMV    
- high 24 (4.59) 51 (8.40) 1.0 ref.
- low 122 (23.33) 201 (33.11) 1.4 (0.8–2.3)
+ high 109 (20.84) 100 (16.47) 2.6 (1.5–4.6)
+ low 268 (51.24) 255 (42.01) 2.5 (1.5–4.3)
AP (95% CI)   -0.2 (-0.6–0.3)   
  1. ACPA anti-citrullinated protein antibody, RA rheumatoid arthritis, AP attributable proportion due to additive interaction, CI confidence interval, EBV Epstein-Barr virus, CMV cytomegalovirus, ref reference
  2. aOdds ratios (OR) were adjusted for age, gender and residential area. Significant ORs are shown in italics
  3. bHigh indicates the highest quartile of antibody titres (25% highest)
  4. cLow indicates the lower three quartiles of antibody titres (75% lowest)