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Table 4 Association and additive interaction between HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and anti-viral antibodies in ACPA-positive RA

From: Low levels of antibodies against common viruses associate with anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis; implications for disease aetiology

Factors Cases (%) Controls (%) OR (95% CI)a
HLA-DRB1 SE EBV    
- highb 17 (2.83) 76 (11.00) 1.0 ref
- lowc 76 (12.67) 273 (39.51) 1.2 (0.6–2.1)
+ high 85 (14.17) 97 (14.03) 3.9 (2.1–7.2)
+ low 422 (70.33) 245 (35.46) 7.9 (4.5–13.8)
AP (95% CI)   0.5 (0.3–0.7)   
HLA-DRB1 SE B19    
- high 9 (1.50) 77 (11.14) 1.0 ref
- low 84 (14.00) 272 (39.36) 2.7 (1.3–5.7)
+ high 92 (15.33) 96 (13.89) 8.8 (4.1–18.8)
+ low 415 (69.17) 246 (35.60) 15.7 (7.7–32.2)
AP (95% CI)   0.3 (0.1–0.5)   
HLA-DRB1 SE CMV    
- high 17 (2.84) 88 (12.75) 1.0 ref
- low 76 (12.69) 261 (37.83) 1.5 (0.9–2.8)
+ high 125 (20.87) 86 (12.46) 8.2 (4.5–15.0)
+ low 381 (63.60) 255 (36.96) 8.4 (4.8–14.6)
AP (95% CI)   -0.05 (-0.4–0.3)   
  1. ACPA anti-citrullinated protein antibody, RA rheumatoid arthritis, AP attributable proportion due to additive interaction, CI confidence interval, EBV Epstein-Barr virus, CMV cytomegalovirus, ref reference
  2. aOdds ratios (OR) were adjusted for age, gender, and residential area. Significant ORs are shown in italics
  3. bHigh indicates highest quartile of antibody titres (25% highest)
  4. cLow indicates lower three quartiles of antibody titres (75% lowest)