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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of relationship of incretins and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 with insulin resistance indexes

From: Incretins in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

  β Coefficient (95% CI) β Coefficient (95% CI)
HOMA-IR p Value p Value* HOMA2%B-C-peptide p Value p Value*
GLP-1, ng/ml       
 Patients with RA 0.00 (−0.93 to 0.93) 0.99 0.068 155 (105 to 205) 0.000 0.003
 Control subjects −1.34 (−2.46 to −0.23) 0.018 37 (−22 to 96) 0.22
GIP, ng/ml
 Patients with RA 0.32 (0.10 to 0.53) 0.004 0.42 59 (50 to 68) 0.000 0.29
 Control subjects 0.14 (−0.22 to 0.51) 0.44 49 (31 to 66) 0.000
DPP-4, ng/ml
 Patients with RA −0.002 (−0.003 to −0.002) 0.000 0.39 −0.12 (−0.16 to −0.09) 0.000 0.71
 Control subjects −0.003 (−0.003 to −0.002) 0.000 −0.13 (−0.18 to 0.09) 0.000
  1. Abbreviations: DPP-4 Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, GIP Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide 1, HOMA2-%B Homeostatic model assessment of β-cell production calculated with C-peptide, HOMA2-IR Homeostatic model assessment calculated with insulin, RA Rheumatoid arthritis
  2. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, dyslipidemia, statins, antihypertensive treatment, and CPR and cholesterol levels. GLP-1, GIP and DPP-4 are considered independent variables. β Coefficients of the relation of GLP-1, GIP and DPP-4 (independent variables) with HOMA2 indexes (dependent variables) are disclosed. p Values are the linear regression adjusted p values of these associations. p* Value refers to the statistical significance of the interaction factor when adding GLP-1 × RA, GIP × RA, and DPP-4 × RA as such interaction factors to the model. p<0.05 are depicted in bold