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Table 5 Predictivity of cytokines and chemokines in SLE flares

From: Predictive biological markers of systemic lupus erythematosus flares: a systematic literature review

Cytokines or chemokines Number of patients (n) Findings Study
BAFF/BLyS 42 Changes in BAFF levels were unrelated to disease flares Becker-Merok et al., 2006 [47]
BAFF/BLyS 245 Increase in BLyS level was associated with the occurrence of mild-to-moderate flares Petri et al., 2008 [48]
BAFF/BLyS 562 Baseline BLyS level independently predicted flare Petri et al., 2013 [9]
BLyS, APRIL and 50 analytes: innate and adaptive cytokines, chemokines and soluble TNFR superfamily members 28 Patients with impending flare had significant alterations in the levels of 27 soluble mediators at baseline Munroe et al., 2014 [52]
CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL19 (MIP-3B), CXCL10 (IP-10) 267 Patients with high baseline chemokine levels were at increased risk for flares Bauer et al., 2009 [49]
CXCL2, CXCL10 25 High CXCL10 and CXCL2 were predictive of increased disease activity Andrade et al., 2012 [50]
IL-2R 26 Activation of T cells occurs prior to clinical disease activity Spronk et al., 1996 [56]
sIL-2R NA Levels of sIL-2R rose significantly up to the moment of maximal disease activity Spronk et al., 1994 [57]
sCD25 3 Levels of sCD25 increased preceding periods of exacerbations Swaak et al., 1995 [55]
IFN-α, IFN-γ-inducible protein 1 and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 79 None of the investigated biomarkers was a predictive variable for flares Rose et al., 2013 [51]
Soluble IL-7 receptor (sIL-7R) 105 High sIL-7R levels associated with renal flares Lauwerys et al., 2014 [53]
IL1-RA, TNFRI 41 Patients who flared had higher baseline plasma levels of IL-1RA and TNFRI Guthridge et al., 2014 [54]
  1. APRIL a proliferation-inducing ligand, BAFF B-cell activating factor, BLyS B-lymphocyte stimulator, CCL chemokine ligand, CXCL chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand, s soluble, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, TNFR tumour necrosis factor receptor type