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Fig. 1 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: TLR2 stimulation impairs anti-inflammatory activity of M2-like macrophages, generating a chimeric M1/M2 phenotype

Fig. 1

Characterization of surface markers on M0, M1-, and M2-polarized macrophages following Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand exposure and activation. For phenotypical analysis, M0 (ex vivo monocytes), M1-like (GM-CSF-differentiated), and M2-like (M-CSF-differentiated) macrophages derived from peripheral blood of healthy donors (HD) or patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were stained for fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis with fluorescently labeled antibodies CD14-allophycocyanin-cyanine 7 (APC-Cy7), CD163-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), CD206-BV421, CD86-phycoerythrin (PE), and CD80-FITC. a Comparison of surface marker expression on freshly isolated M0- versus M1- versus M2-differentiated macrophages from HD and patients with RA presented as the percentage of positively stained cell populations. b Quality of surface marker expression in M1- versus M2-differentiated macrophages from HD and patients with RA was analyzed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and presented as a box plot (upper panel) and with representative histograms (lower panel; light gray area = unstained cells, dark full line = M1, dotted line = M2). MFI was calculated as ΔMFI = MFIspecific surface marker − MFIcorresponding unstained control and normalized to the basal MFI of unstained control cells. c Effect of TLR or interferon (IFN)-γ/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation on surface marker expression in M1- or M2-differentiated macrophages from HD compared with patients with RA presented as percentage of positively stained cell populations. n = 6, * p < 0.05

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