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Fig. 2 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: TLR2 stimulation impairs anti-inflammatory activity of M2-like macrophages, generating a chimeric M1/M2 phenotype

Fig. 2

Change of characteristic anti-inflammatory M2 gene markers following Toll-like receptor ligand exposure and activation. a M0 (monocytes), M1 (GM-CSF-differentiated), and M2 (M-CSF-differentiated) macrophages were stimulated for 24 h with 300 ng/ml Pam3, 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a combination of interferon (IFN)-γ/LPS (20 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml). Change in gene expression of M2 markers HMOX1, FOLR2, and SLC40A1 following stimulation was measured by qRT-PCR. b Changes in HMOX1, FOLR2, and SLC40A1 gene expression following Pam3 or LPS exposure for 24 h was also measured in M1- and M2-differentiated macrophages derived from blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Values were normalized to UBC or TBP messenger RNA levels and expressed as 2−ΔCT ± SD. n = 4–5, * p < 0.05

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