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Fig. 3 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: TLR2 stimulation impairs anti-inflammatory activity of M2-like macrophages, generating a chimeric M1/M2 phenotype

Fig. 3

Cytokine profile of M0, M1-, and M2-polarized macrophages following Toll-like receptor ligand exposure and activation. a M0 (monocytes), M1 (GM-CSF-differentiated), and M2 (M-CSF-differentiated) macrophages were stimulated for 24 h with 300 ng/ml Pam3, 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or a combination of interferon (IFN)-γ/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml). Cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and values are expressed as mean ± SD. n = 4–10, * p < 0.05. b Anti-inflammatory activity was calculated by the ratio of secreted interleukin (IL)-10 to IL-6 or IL-8 and compared in M1- versus M2-differentiated macrophages derived from blood of healthy donors (HD; open bars) or patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; black bars) upon stimulation with 300 ng/ml Pam3 or 100 ng/ml LPS. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. n = 7, * p < 0.05. TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α

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