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Table 2 Demographic, clinical and serological factors associated with failure to achieve LLDAS at T1

From: Failure to achieve lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) six months after diagnosis is associated with early damage accrual in Caucasian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
No LLDA at T1 (n = 60) LLDAS at T1 (n = 47) p value Odds ratio p value
Demographic features
 Male, n (%) 6 (10.0%) 5 (10.6%) 1.00   
 Onset age, median (IQR) years 32.3 (25.7–43.0) 29.2 (24.4–39.8) 0.221   
 Diagnosis age, median (IQR) years 36.9 (28.2–45.1) 31.2 (25.6–40.6) 0.152   
 Disease duration, median (IQR) months 9.0 (5.0–12.3) 10.6 (6.1–30.6) 0.340   
Clinical features
 Malar rash, n (%) 15 (25.0%) 14 (29.8%) 0.580   
 Discoid rash, n (%) 4 (6.7%) 3 (6.4%) 1,000   
 Photosensitivity, n (%) 16 (26.7%) 10 (21.3%) 0.519   
 Oral ulcers, n (%) 7 (11.7%) 4 (8.5%) 0.752   
 Arthritis, n (%) 54 (90.0%) 42 (89.4%) 1.00   
 Serositis, n (%) 19 (31.7%) 13 (27.7%) 0.653   
 Renal disorder, n (%) 25 (41.7%) 2 (4.3%) <0.001 7.8 (1.41–43.4) 0.019
 Neurologic disorder, n (%) 3 (5.0%) 0 0.254   
 Haematological disorders, n (%) 37 (61.7%) 24 (51.1%) 0.272   
 SLEDAI-2K, median (IQR) score 13 (9.0-18.0) 8 (7.2–10.0) <0.001 - -
Serological features
 ANA, n (%) 59 (98.3%) 47 (100%) 1.00   
 Anti-dsDNA, n (%) 49 (81.7%) 29 (61.7%) 0.013 - -
 Anti-dsDNA, median (IQR) UI/mL 114 (46–2069) 106 (31–191) 0.057   
 Anti-Sm, n (%) 11 (18.3%) 8 (17.0%) 0.860   
 Anti-RNP, n (%) 17 (28.3%) 10 (21.3%) 0.404   
 Anti-SSA, n (%) 23 (38.3%) 23 (48.9%) 0.272   
 Anti-SSB, n (%) 5 (8.3%) 8 (17.0%) 0.172   
 Any aPLs, n (%) 15 (25.0%) 11 (23.4%) 0.971   
 C3, median (IQR) mg/dL 65.5 (40.1–80.5) 82.0 (67.0–90.8) 0.002 - -
 C4, median (IQR) mg/dL 10.0 (4.0–13.0) 13.0 (10.0–16.0) 0.013 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.036
Therapy
 Anti-malarials drugs, n (%) 41 (68.3%) 26 (55.3%) 0.167   
 Immunosuppressant drugs, n (%) 45 (75.0%) 23 (48.9%) 0.010 - -
 PDN dose, median (IQR) mg/day 25.0 (13.7–37.5) 8.0 (5.0–14.8) <0.001 1.04 (0.99–1.1) 0.073
  1. Boxes are empty where statistical analysis was not applied. In the present logistic regression model the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2 k) score was removed
  2. LLDAS lupus low disease activity state, No LLDAS failure to achieve LLDAS, aPLs positivity for lupus anticoagulant (LAC) e/o aCL e/o Beta2-GPI antibodies, PDN prednisolone (or equivalent)
  3. Numbers in bold indicate statistical significance for p < 0.05