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Table 3 Linear relationships between 12-week change in strength-related measures (independent variable) and 12-week change in WOMAC function (dependent variable) for the entire cohort and according to physical dysfunction severity at baseline using imputed data

From: Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysisa Multivariable analysisb   Multivariable analysisc
Regression coefficient (95% CI) p value Adj. R 2 Regression coefficient (95% CI) p value Adj. R 2 Regression coefficient (95% CI) p value Adj. R 2 Regression coefficient (95% CI) p value Adj. R 2
Entire cohort             
 Δ Knee extensor strength (Nm/kg)   −17.3 (−29.5 to −5.2) 0.01 0.09 −17.7 (−30.0 to −5.3) 0.01 0.08 −17.9 (−30.5 to −5.3) 0.01 0.06 −17.2 (−29.4 to −4.9) 0.01 0.10
 Δ Knee flexor strength (Nm/kg)   −19.6 (−44.4 to 5.3) 0.12 0.03 −19.0 (−44.0 to 6.0) 0.13 0.05 −19.3 (−44.6 to 6.0) 0.13 0.00 −22.0 (−46.4 to 2.5) 0.08 0.06
According to baseline physical dysfunction           
 Δ Knee extensor strength (Nm/kg)     0.27d    0.27d    0.26d    0.33d
  Mild −2.7 (−26.1 to 20.8) 0.82   −1.7 (−25.9 to 22.5) 0.89   −2.2 (−26.7 to 22.2) 0.86   4.8 (−20.2 to 29.8) 0.70  
Moderate −13.4 (−32.6 to 5.9) 0.17   −13.8 (−32.7 to 5.2) 0.15   −13.4 (−33.3 to 6.4) 0.18   −16.9 (−35.7 to 1.9) 0.08
Severe −24.0 (−42.2 to −5.7) 0.01   −24.8 (−43.1 to −6.4) 0.01   −24.9 (−43.1 to −6.5) 0.01   −24.2 (−41.7 to −6.7) 0.01
 Δ Knee flexor strength (Nm/kg)     0.22d    0.21d    0.20d    0.27d
  Mild 0.01 (−34.8 to 35.0) 0.99   −2.8 (−33.2 to 38.8) 0.88   2.20 (−34.4 to 38.8) 0.90   −7.3 (−44.3 to 29.7) 0.69  
Moderate −13.9 (−45.0 to 17.2) 0.38   −13.8 (−44.5 to 16.8) 0.37   −14.21 (−45.2 to 16.8) 0.36   −10.2 (−39.8 to 19.3) 0.49
Severe −42.0 (−99.6 to 15.6) 0.15   −42.7 (−101.3 to 16.0) 0.15   −42.00 (−100.8 to 16.8) 0.16   −47.6 (−100.7 to 5.6) 0.08
  1. Adj. adjusted, CI confidence interval, WOMAC Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index
  2. aAdjusted for sex, age
  3. bAdjusted for sex, age, exercise group, baseline strength
  4. cAdjusted for sex, age, exercise group, baseline strength, change in pain (visual analogue scale)
  5. dAdjusted R 2 value for the entire model including all terms