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Table 3 The incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) in various populations and key features of underlying epidemiologic studies

From: Incidence of giant cell arteritis in Western Norway 1972–2012: a retrospective cohort study

Location (reference) Time period Inclusion criteria Number of subjects (N) Annual incidencea
Biopsy-proven only All casesb Biopsy-proven only All casesb
Norway (PS) 1972–2012 ACR 1990 criteria 528 792 11.2 16.7
Norway [11] 1992–1996 Clinical diagnosis 47 53 29.1 32.8
Norway [13] 1987–1994 Biopsy-proven only 66 NR 29.0 NR
Sweden [29] 1997–2010 Biopsy-proven only 840 NR 14.1 NR
Sweden [36] 1976–1995 Biopsy-proven only 665 NR 22.2 NR
Sweden [47] 1973–1975 Clinical diagnosis 74 126 16.8 28.6
Finland [46] 1969–1989 Biopsy-proven only 66 NR 7.2 NR
Denmark [38] 1982–1994 Clinical diagnosis NR NR 15.1 20.4
Iceland [7] 1984–1990 Clinical diagnosis 125 133 25.4 27.0
Minnesota, USA [9] 2000–2009 ACR 1990 criteria + radiologic criteriac 56 74 NR 19.8
New Zealand [6] 1996–2005 Biopsy-proven only 70 NR 12.7 NR
Israel [39] 1990–2009 ACR 1990 criteria NR 140 NR 8.1
Italy [14] 1986–2012 Biopsy-proven only 285 NR 5.8 NR
Spain [40] 1981–2005 Biopsy-proven only 255 NR 10.1 NR
Turkey [41] 2002–2008 Clinical diagnosis 13 19 NR 1.1
  1. PS present study, NR not reported, ACR American College of Rheumatology
  2. aMean annual incidence reported as cases per 100,000 population age ≥50 years
  3. bIncluding probable cases based on clinical diagnosis despite negative biopsy or in patients in whom biopsy was not performed
  4. cSeven patients were included based on radiologic criteria. These were all ≥50 years old with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, and evidence of large-vessel vasculitis on angiographic computed tomography, angiographic magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography