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Table 2 Urine protein markers in the subjects studied

From: Urinary angiostatin, CXCL4 and VCAM-1 as biomarkers of lupus nephritis

Urine protein markers (normalized to creatinine) Healthy controls (N = 53) Inactive SLE (N = 80) Active non-renal SLE (N = 67) Active renal SLE (N = 80) P value
Angiostatin (ng/ng) 0.26 ± 0.60 0.34 ± 0.56 1.60 ± 2.91 18.4 ± 27.1 < 0.0001a
 < 0.0001b
CXCL4 (pg/ng) 0.11 ± 0.63 0.38 ± 1.55 5.12 ± 10.4 9.11 ± 15.7 0.0031a
 < 0.0001b
VCAM-1 (pg/ng) 18.5 ± 60.8 159 ± 357 722 ± 1100 1410 ± 1310 < 0.0001a
 < 0.0001b
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation
  2. SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, CXCL4 CXC chemokine ligand 4, VCAM-1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
  3. aP value for active renal vs active non-renal groups
  4. bP value for active SLE vs inactive SLE groups