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Fig. 1 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 1

From: Blockade of TGF-β/Smad signaling by the small compound HPH-15 ameliorates experimental skin fibrosis

Fig. 1

The antifibrotic role of the histidine-pyridine-histidine ligand derivative HPH-15 in cultured human dermal fibroblasts stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Normal human dermal fibroblasts were pretreated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or various concentrations of DMSO-diluted HPH-15 for 1 h. Then, cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml human TGF-β1 for the next 24 h. a Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of collagen type I, alpha 2 (Col1a2), and fibronectin 1 (FN1) in fibroblasts was measured by real-time RT-PCR. n = 3 per group. b–d HPH-15 at a dose of 3 μM was used on the basis of results shown in (a). b and c Total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting of Col1a2, FN1, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). n = 4 per group. Values are normalized relative to control. d Normal human fibroblasts were stained with α-smooth muscle actin by immunofluorescent staining, and representative pictures are shown. Scale bar = 30 μm. n = 3 per group. All values represent mean ± SEM. * p ≤ 0.05. GAPDH Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

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