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Table 2 Unadjusted univariate association between incident gout and clinical covariates assessed at baseline

From: Untangling the complex relationships between incident gout risk, serum urate, and its comorbidities

Risk factor Percentage Gout OR p-value  
  (%) incidencea (95% CI) For OR Chi-square test
Overall 100 2.72    
Serum urate     <.001 <.001
Normal 54.0 0.79 Ref   
Medium-high 38.2 2.47 3.16 (2.11, 4.76)   
High 7.7 17.43 25.9 (17.2, 38.4)   
Sex     <.001 <.001
Female 56.2 1.90 Ref   
Male 43.8 3.77 2.01 (1.53, 2.66)   
Ethnicity     <.001 <.001
European American 80.2 2.07 Ref   
African American 19.8 5.34 2.66 (2.01, 3.51)   
Age     0.325 0.36
≤ 54 years 54.7 2.56 Ref   
> 54 years 45.3 2.92 1.15 (0.87, 1.50)   
Body mass index     <.001 <.001
Nonobese 75.1 2.21 Ref   
Obese 24.9 4.25 1.96 (1.48, 2.59)   
eGFR     <.001 <.001
Low 2.1 8.41 3.42 (1.95, 6.00)   
Normal or mildly reduced 97.9 2.60 Ref   
HDL cholesterol     0.001 0.002
Low 21.3 3.85 1.62 (1.20, 2.17)   
Normal 78.7 2.42 Ref   
LDL cholesterol     0.613 0.662
Normal 46.5 2.82 Ref   
High 53.5 2.64 0.93 (0.71, 1.22)   
Systolic blood pressure     <.001 <.001
Normal or prehypertensive 89.0 2.42 Ref   
Hypertensive 11.0 5.17 2.19 (1.57, 3.06)   
Triglycerides     <.001 <.001
Normal 74.6 2.18 Ref   
High 25.4 4.32 2.02 (1.53, 2.67)   
Glucose     0.055 0.075
Normal 93.1 2.63 Ref   
High 6.9 4.00 1.55 (0.99, 2.42)   
  1. aAverage number of new cases per 1000 patients per year