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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics as predictors of non-achievement of remission off medication in univariate logistic regression

From: Predicting unfavorable long-term outcome in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results from the Nordic cohort study

Baseline characteristics Total N Remission off medicationa Not in remissionb OR (95% CI) p
Gender female, n (%) 410 106 (38.8) 167 (61.2) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.334
Age at disease onset, years 410 6.3 (2.5–10.0) 5.2 (2.5–9.6) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.401
Time from onset to diagnosis, months 388 1.5 (0.5–2.9) 1.7 (0.5–3.6) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.152
Cumulative active joint count 410 2 (1–4) 4 (2–7) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) < 0.001
Physician’s global assessment VAS 227 0.8 (0.0–1.3) 2.0 (1.0–3.8) 3.5 (1.9–6.2) < 0.001
Polyarticular RF-positive, n (%) 410 1 (25.0) 3 (75.0) 2.1 (0.2–20.0) 0.535
Polyarticular RF-negative, n (%) 410 25 (26.9) 68 (73.1) 2.2 (1.3–3.6) 0.003
Oligoarticular, n (%) 410 107 (49.1) 111 (50.9) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) < 0.001
Psoriatic arthritis, n (%) 410 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 0.7 (0.1–3.4) 0.635
Enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), n (%) 410 11 (32.4) 23 (67.6) 1.5 (0.7–3.1) 0.315
Undifferentiated arthritis, n (%) 410 19 (34.5) 36 (65.5) 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.336
ANA-positive, ≤ 6 years, n (%)c 397 22 (31.4) 48 (68.6) 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 0.107
Specific joint involvement, n (%)
 Hip joint 409 18 (32.1) 38 (67.9) 1.5 (0.8–2.8) 0.168
 Ankle joint 409 57 (31.0) 127 (69.0) 2.1 (1.4–3.1) < 0.001
 Tarsal joint 409 6 (16.7) 30 (83.3) 3.8 (1.5–9.2) 0.004
 Subtalar joint 409 14 (26.9) 38 (73.1) 2.0 (1.1–3.8) 0.034
 Wrist joint 409 33 (30.6) 75 (69.4) 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 0.014
 Finger joint 409 36 (27.7) 94 (72.3) 2.3 (1.5–3.6) < 0.001
 Neck 409 9 (26.5) 25 (73.5) 2.0 (0.9–4.4) 0.085
 Upper limb joints 410 67 (32.7) 138 (67.3) 1.9 (1.3–2.9) 0.001
 Lower limb joints 410 144 (39.0) 225 (61.0) 1.8 (0.9–3.5) 0.073
Symmetric involvement, n (%)
 Hip joints 409 5 (21.7) 18 (78.3) 2.6 (0.9–7.1) 0.067
 Ankle joints 409 27 (28.4) 68 (71.6) 2.0 (1.2–3.3) 0.006
 Wrist joints 409 22 (34.4) 42 (65.6) 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 0.272
 Finger joints 409 13 (22.0) 46 (78.0) 2.7 (1.4–5.3) 0.002
Patient-reported outcomes
 Patient’s/parent’s global assessment VAS 250 0.5 (0.0–2.2) 1.7 (0.5–3.5) 2.2 (1.4–3.4) 0.001
 CHAQ score 257 0.1 (0.0–0.6) 0.5 (0.0–1.1) 2.0 (1.3–3.0) 0.002
 Pain VAS 246 0.4 (0.0–3.0) 2.3 (0.5–4.2) 1.9 (1.3–2.8) 0.002
 Morning stiffness for > 15 min, n (%) 314 25 (22.1) 88 (77.9) 3.6 (2.1–6.0) < 0.001
Laboratory tests
 ESR mm/h 332 11.0 (6.0–18.0) 17.0 (9.5–34.0) 1.4 (1.2–1.7) < 0.001
 CRP >10 mg/L, n (%) 329 12 (16.7) 60 (83.3) 3.9 (2.0–7.5) < 0.001
 ANA-positive, n (%) 397 37 (33.0) 75 (67.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) 0.075
 RF-positive, n (%) 221 5 (50.0) 5 (50.0) 0.6 (0.2–2.0) 0.376
 HLA-B27 positive, n (%) 382 21 (25.9) 60 (74.1) 2.1 (1.2–3.6) 0.010
  1. Values are the median (interquartile range, IQR), or number (percentage)
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, VAS visual analogue scale, CHAQ Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate for an increase in 10 mm/h, CRP C-reactive protein, ANA antinuclear antibody, RF rheumatoid factor, HLA-B27 human leucocyte antigen
  3. aInactive disease off medication for 12 months according to the preliminary Wallace criteria
  4. bNot in remission equals non-achievement of remission off medication
  5. cANA-positive patients ≤6 years at disease onset, with oligoarticular, polyarticular RF negative, psoriatic or undifferentiated arthritis