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Table 1 Baseline clinical and renal pathological features of LN patients with or without deep remission

From: Early achievement of deep remission predicts low incidence of renal flare in lupus nephritis class III or IV

Baseline characteristics Deep remission p
Achieved (n = 55) Not achieved (n = 14)
Sex (percentage female) 48 (87.3) 9 (64.2) 0.01
Age (years) 39.1 ± 12.4 39.9 ± 10.7 0.3
BMI (kg/m2) 22.4 ± 3.3 20.9 ± 2.3 0.5
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127.8 ± 17.0 136.4 ± 21.5 0.2
Diastolic blood pressure 79.7 ± 13.6 83.6 ± 14.5 0.3
Disease duration (years) 5.1 ± 6.8 8.0 ± 6.4 0.4
SLEDAI 15.6 ± 4.8 13.0 ± 4.8 0.4
SDI 0.4 ± 0.6 0.6 ± 0.8 0.7
Proteinuria (g/gCr) 2.7 ± 2.1 3.7 ± 1.8 0.07
eGFR (mL/min) 76.6 ± 28.2 72.2 ± 32.8 0.9
Anti-dsDNA antibody (IU/mL) 177 ± 274 112 ± 116 0.6
Anti-cardiolipin antibody (IU/mL) 21.8 ± 30.7 14.7 ± 28.5 0.5
Lupus anticoagulant-positive (%) 3 (5.5) 1 (7.1) 0.6
CH50 (U/ml) 17.1 ± 9.3 24.4 ± 14.2 0.06
Prednisolone (mg/day) 45.5 ± 15.1 37.1 ± 10.1 0.08
Induction therapy
 IVCY (%) 29 (52.7) 5 (35.7) 0.4
 MMF (%) 8 (14.5) 2 (14.3) 0.9
 Tacrolimus (%) 8 (14.5) 2 (14.3) 0.9
 PSL monotherapy (%) 6 (10.9) 2 (14.3) 0.8
 Others (%) 4 (7.3) 3 (21.4) 0.1
Renal pathological findings
 ISN/RPS classification
  III or III + V (%) 26 (47.3) 5 (35.7) 0.4
  IV or IV + V (%) 29 (52.7) 9 (64.3) 0.4
Endocapillary hypercellularity (%) 39.2 ± 18.6 46.0 ± 30.2 0.5
Leukocyte infiltration (%) 2.0 ± 4.9 2.2 ± 4.1 0.4
Subendothelial hyaline deposits (%) 29.1 ± 30.2 30.1 ± 28.9 0.3
Fibrinoid necrosis/karyorrhexis (%) 7.0 ± 11.1 8.1 ± 18.1 0.3
Cellular crescents (%) 7.0 ± 11.1 8.1 ± 18.1 0.7
Interstitial inflammation (%) 2.1 ± 3.7 2.3 ± 7.4 0.5
Glomerular sclerosis (%) 2.5 ± 7.1 3.9 ± 8.2 0.4
Fibrous crescents (%) 2.1 ± 2.0 2.2 ± 3.1 0.7
Tubular atrophy (%) 2.8 ± 4.7 3.3 ± 5.9 0.5
Interstitial fibrosis (%) 4.7 ± 6.8 5.1 ± 5.9 0.6
Activity index 5.2 ± 3.0 5.1 ± 3.8 0.5
Chronicity index 1.4 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 1.3 0.7
  1. dsDNA double-stranded DNA, IVCY intravenous cyclophosphamide, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, SDI Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index