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Fig. 3 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: Estrogen induces St6gal1 expression and increases IgG sialylation in mice and patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a potential explanation for the increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in postmenopausal women

Fig. 3

Estrogen affects expression of the sialylation enzyme in plasmablasts. Mice were ovariectomized (OVX) at 3 months of age, followed by insertion of slow-release treatment pellets with placebo (Pla) or estrogen (E2; 0.83 μg/day). Ten days after ovariectomy, animals were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA), and 14 days later, they were boostered. a Expression of Blimp1, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4galt1), and β-galactoside α2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (St6gal1) in CD138-sorted plasmablasts on day 38 (n = 5–6). Statistical analysis was performed with Student’s t test. b Flow cytometry-based quantification of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of St6Gal1 expression of plasmablasts on day 38 (n = 10–14). Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni multiple-comparisons test. c Flow cytometry-based quantification of MFI St6Gal1 expression of OVA-specific plasmablasts (n = 10–14). Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni multiple-comparisons test. d Immunoglobulin G in supernatant and expression of Blimp1, in CD43-negative splenic cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 72 hours for development into plasmablasts. For the last 24 hours, the cells were stimulated with the presence (+) of estrogen (E2) 10− 8 or absence (−) of E2. e Expression of B4galt1, and St6gal1 in CD43-negative splenic cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 72 h for development into plasmablasts. For the last 24 h, the cells were stimulated with the presence (+) of estrogen (E2) 10− 8 or absence (−) of E2. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or ant-interleukin (IL)-22 antibodies were also added as indicated. Statistical analysis was performed with Student’s t test (n = 5–7). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01. Data are shown as mean ± SEM. mRNA Messenger RNA

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