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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients

From: Effect of combined treatment with bisphosphonate and vitamin D on atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a propensity score-based analysis

  BP + VD (n = 42) Other treatments (n = 75) p value
Demographics
 Female, n (%) 35 (83%) 69 (92%) 0.22
 Age (years) 40 (31, 49) 43 (35, 54) 0.18
 Age at diagnosis (years) 32.5 (21, 43) 28 (19, 40) 0.19
 Smoking, n (%) 16 (38%) 28 (43%) 0.59
 Post menopause, n (%) 13/35 (37%) 30/69 (43%) 0.56
 BMI (kg/m2) 22.3 (20.1, 24.1) 22.1 (19.2, 26.0) 0.56
 Duration of disease (years) 5 (0, 13) 12 (5, 24) < 0.001
 SLEDAI-2 K 5 (2, 13) 4 (2, 6) 0.07
 History of LN, n (%) 20 (48%) 31 (41%) 0.51
 APS, n (%) 10 (24%) 14 (19%) 0.47
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 9 (21%) 17 (23%) 0.88
 Hypertension, n (%) 26 (62%) 45 (60%) 0.84
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119 (110, 130) 121 (111, 132) 0.59
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 74 (69, 82) 77 (70, 86) 0.25
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 32 (76%) 50(67%) 0.28
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 194 (160, 226) 199 (172, 220) 0.51
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 130 (95, 185) 147 (94, 209) 0.39
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 61 (42, 76) 64 (52, 75) 0.25
 LDL-C (mg/dL) 99 (86, 131) 101 (83, 124) 0.87
 CKD, n (%) 20 (48%) 32 (43%) 0.65
 eGFR (mL/min) 79.1 (24.8) 74.1 (25.8) 0.31
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.7 (0.60, 0.88) 0.68 (0.59, 0.87) 0.98
 aPL, n (%) 17 (40%) 25 (33%) 0.44
 History of CVD, n (%) 6 (14%) 5 (7%) 0.20
 History of bone fractures, n (%) 5 (12%) 9 (12%) 1.00
BMD measurements
 BMD (lumbar spine) (g/cm2) 0.975 (0.159) 0.990 (0.180) 0.68
 BMD (FN) (g/cm2) 0.717 (0.151) 0.708 (0.117) 0.61
 Low BMD, n (%) 25/38 (66%) 23/63 (37%) 0.004
 Osteoporosis, n (%) 4/38 (12%) 5/63 (12%) 0.73
Carotid measurements
 Carotid plaque, n (%) 7 (17%) 33 (44%) 0.002
 Mean IMT (mm) 0.56 (0.12) 0.61 (0.17) 0.07
Treatment
 Duration of anti-osteoporotic treatment (months) 47 (3, 72) 47 (26, 65) 0.89
 Cumulative dose of GC (ga) 37.2 (4.5, 86.2) 74.3 (23.4, 118.3) 0.028
 Duration of GC use (months) 80 (2, 166) 164 (47, 276) 0.002
 Current dose of GC (mga/day) 16 (9, 30) 7.5 (5, 10) < 0.001
 Concomitant use of IS, n (%) 29 (69%) 41 (55%) 0.12
 mPSL pulse, n (%) 23 (55%) 28 (38%) 0.079
 Maximum dose of oral GC (mga/day) 60 (40, 60) 60 (30, 60) 0.38
 Antihypertensive agent, n (%) 25 (60%) 36 (48%) 0.23
 Statin, n (%) 24 (57%) 29 (39%) 0.054
  1. Values are number (percent), median (25th, 75th percentiles), or mean (SD)
  2. BP bisphosphonate, VD vitamin D agent, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, BMI body mass index, SLEDAI-2 K systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000, LN lupus nephritis, APS antiphospholipid syndrome, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CKD chronic kidney disease, aPL antiphospholipid antibody, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMD bone mineral density, FN femoral neck, IMT intima-media thickness, GC glucocorticoid, IS immunosuppressant, mPSL methylprednisolone
  3. aPrednisolone equivalents