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Table 2 Comparisons of patients’ characteristics

From: Effect of combined treatment with bisphosphonate and vitamin D on atherosclerosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a propensity score-based analysis

  Carotid plaque (+)
(n = 40)
Carotid plaque (−)
(n = 77)
p value
Demographics
 Female, n (%) 37 (93%) 67 (87%) 0.54
 Age (years) 49 (39, 65) 40 (31, 47) <0.0001
 Age at diagnosis (years) 33 (23, 42) 29 (18, 38.5) 0.07
 Smoking, n (%) 20 (50%) 28 (36%) 0.16
 Post menopause, n (%) 23/36 (64%) 20/67 (30%) 0.002
 BMI (kg/m2) 22.6 (19.1, 26.3) 22.3 (19.5, 25.2) 0.87
 Duration of disease (years) 17 (6, 25) 7 (1.5, 15) 0.002
 SLEDAI-2 K 3.5 (2, 7) 7 (2, 12) 0.07
 History of LN, n (%) 10 (29%) 37 (49%) 0.04
 APS, n (%) 11 (28%) 14 (18%) 0.24
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 11 (28%) 15 (20%) 0.35
 Hypertension, n (%) 29 (73%) 42 (55%) 0.07
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 121 (112, 132) 120 (109, 132) 0.47
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77 (70, 85) 75 (70, 85) 0.77
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 31 (78%) 51(66%) 0.29
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 198 (172, 221) 196 (167, 227) 0.73
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 146 (103, 201) 139 (90, 201) 0.63
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 64 (53, 75) 64 (49, 75) 0.69
 LDL-C (mg/dL) 104 (85, 126) 100 (81, 125) 0.91
 CKD, n (%) 15 (38%) 21 (27%) 0.29
 eGFR (mL/min) 64.8 (18.9) 81.7 (26.6) 0.0005
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.78 (0.63, 0.90) 0.65 (0.58, 0.84) 0.02
 aPL, n (%) 19 (48%) 23 (30%) 0.07
 History of CVD, n (%) 7 (18%) 4 (5%) 0.04
 History of bone fractures, n (%) 7 (9%) 7 (18%) 0.20
BMD measurements
 BMD (lumbar spine) (g/cm2) 0.931 (0.170) 1.008 (0.168) 0.032
 T-score (lumbar spine) −0.75 (1.52) −0.09 (1.53) 0.048
 BMD (FN) (g/cm2) 0.652 (0.102) 0.738 (0.134) 0.006
 T-score (FN) −1.26 (0.96) −0.65 (1.08) 0.02
 Low BMD, n (%) 19 (56%) 29 (43%) 0.29
 Osteoporosis, n (%) 6 (18%) 3 (5%) 0.06
Carotid measurements
 Mean IMT (mm) 0.69 (0.21) 0.54 (0.10) <0.0001
Treatment
 Duration of GC use (months) 210 (46, 296) 98 (18, 191) 0.006
 Cumulative dose of GC (ga) 88.4 (24.1, 120.8) 48.7 (10.4, 100.6) 0.036
 Current dose of GC (mga/day) 6 (5, 10) 10 (7, 28) 0.005
 Concomitant use of IS, n (%) 18 (45%) 52 (68%) 0.03
 mPSL pulse, n (%) 18 (45%) 33 (43%) 0.82
 Maximum dose of oral GC (mga/day) 60 (30, 60) 60 (30, 60) 0.41
 Antihypertensive agent, n (%) 26 (65%) 35 (45%) 0.04
 Statin, n (%) 20 (50%) 33 (43%) 0.56
 BP, n (%) 19 (48%) 50 (66%) 0.07
 VD, n (%) 21 (53%) 55 (71%) 0.07
 BP + VD, n (%) 7 (18%) 35 (46%) 0.004
  1. Values are number (percent), median (25th, 75th percentiles), or mean (SD)
  2. BP bisphosphonate, VD vitamin D agent, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, BMI body mass index, SLEDAI-2 K systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000, LN lupus nephritis, APS antiphospholipid syndrome, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, CKD chronic kidney disease, aPL antiphospholipid antibody, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMD bone mineral density, FN femoral neck, IMT intima-media thickness, GC glucocorticoid, IS immunosuppressant, mPSL methylprednisolone
  3. aPrednisolone equivalents