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Fig. 2 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 2

From: Oxidative stress impairs energy metabolism in primary cells and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Fig. 2

Bioenergetic metabolism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) subjected to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-induced oxidative stress. a Representative oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) Seahorse analyser profiles before and after injections of oligomycin, trifluorocarbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone (FCCP), antimycin A and 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) in HUVEC in the presence and absence of 4-HNE. b Bar graphs demonstrate quantification of basal mitochondrial (Mt) respiration, maximal Mt respiration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, reserve capacity, basal glycolysis, glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve in HUVEC (n = 3) subjected to oxidative stress. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01, significant differences from basal level

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