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Fig. 3 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: Oxidative stress impairs energy metabolism in primary cells and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Fig. 3

Mitochondrial mutagenesis and activity of enzymes of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes under 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE)-induced oxidative stress. a Bar graphs demonstrate increased production of reactive oxygen species (n = 7), paralleled by the greater frequency of mitochondrial DNA mutation (n = 5) in primary rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cells (RASFC) in response to 4-HNE. b Activity of mitochondrial OXPHOS complexes I–V in the presence of 4-HNE. 4-HNE reduces the activity of complex I by 9%, complex II by 22%, complex III by 8%, complex IV by 70% and complex V by 12% (all complexes measured in triplicate). For each complex, results are graphically demonstrated as the percentage of enzymatic activity in the presence of 4-HNE relative to the percentage of basal activity. Data is represented as Mean ± SEM, **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 significantly different to basal

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