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Fig. 4 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Fig. 4

From: Oxidative stress impairs energy metabolism in primary cells and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Fig. 4

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) induces pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory mechanisms in primary rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast cells (RASFC). Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunofluorescence in RASFC subjected to 4-HNE compared to the basal cells and quantification of VEGF, angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin (IL)-8, platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) in RASFC supernatants (n = 7) following cell culture with 4-HNE. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01, significant differences from basal level. Red = VEGF; blue = 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole–; magnification of photomicrographs × 40

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