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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (demographic, anthropometric and clinical data) for the HUA, gout, and control groups

From: Metabolomics approach by 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum reveals progression axes for asymptomatic hyperuricemia and gout

Parameter Control (n = 50) HUA (n = 50) Gout (n = 49)
Basic characteristics
 Age (years) 43.8 ± 11.5 39.08 ± 10.4* 45.6 ± 7.3##
 Sex (female/male) 0/50 0/50 0/50
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 3.2 27.09 ± 3.0** 26.5 ± 3.3**
 Smoker/non-smoker 24/26 22/28 23/26
 Alcohol consumption (%) 61 67 57
Clinical variables
 DBP (mmHg) 78.6 ± 5.7 85.1 ± 11.1** 91.8 ± 12.4**##
 SBP (mmHg) 114.8 ± 6.5 125.8 ± 14.4** 136.3 ± 19.2**##
 ALT(U/L) 22.6 ± 11.3 43.8 ± 30.6** 34.8 ± 18.9**
 AST(U/L) 20.5 ± 5.9 27.7 ± 14.8** 26.8 ± 12.9**
 Total protein (g/L) 74.8 ± 4.3 75.5 ± 4.4 74.6 ± 4.5
 Albumin (g/L) 49.4 ± 2.9 48.9 ± 2.2 47.8 ± 3.3**#
 Globulin (g/L) 25.4 ± 4.0 26.7 ± 3.5 26.9 ± 4.0
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.0 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.7** 6.3 ± 1.9**#
 Urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.2 5.5 ± 1.8
 Creatinine (μmol/L) 80.6 ± 9.6 81.2 ± 13.9 91.8 ± 23.2**##
 Uric acid (μmol/L) 325.1 ± 60.6 470.6 ± 55.0** 536.2 ± 131.4**##
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 1.2** 3.1 ± 2.1**
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.7 ± 0.8 5.2 ± 0.8** 5.4 ± 1.0**
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.4 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.2** 1.3 ± 0.3##
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.7 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.7** 3.0 ± 0.6*
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD except where stated otherwise
  2. HUA hyperuricemia, BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, SBP systolic blood pressure, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, compared to control; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, compared to the HUA group
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