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Table 2 Association of gout and other risk factors with incident myocardial infarction

From: Gout and the risk of myocardial infarction in older adults: a study of Medicare recipients

  Multivariable-adjusteda model 1 Multivariable-adjusteda model 2 Multivariable-adjusteda model 3
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Age (years)
 65 to < 75 Ref   Ref   Ref  
 75 to < 85 1.62 (1.56, 1.68) < 0.0001 1.60 (1.54, 1.66) < 0.0001 1.55 (1.49, 1.61) < 0.0001
 ≥ 85 2.51 (2.39, 2.64) < 0.0001 2.52 (2.39, 2.64) < 0.0001 2.47 (2.35, 2.60) < 0.0001
Gender
 Male Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Female 0.75 (0.73, 0.78) < 0.0001 0.74 (0.72, 0.77) < 0.0001 0.76 (0.74, 0.79) < 0.0001
Race
 White Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Black 1.00 (0.94, 1.06) 0.97 1.05 (0.99, 1.11) 0.10 0.95 (0.90, 1.01) 0.11
 Other 0.93 (0.86, 1.00) 0.038 0.97 (0.90, 1.04) 0.35 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) 0.002
Charlson–Romano score, per unit change 1.21 (1.21, 1.22) < 0.0001 N/A   N/A  
Charlson–Romano comorbidity score, N (%)
 0 N/A   Ref   N/A  
 1    2.20 (2.08, 2.33) < 0.0001   
 ≥ 2    3.11 (2.99, 3.23) < 0.0001   
Gout 2.08 (1.95, 2.21) < 0.0001 2.14 (2.01, 2.27) < 0.0001 1.79 (1.68, 1.90) < 0.0001
  1. Bold data represent statistical significance, with p < 0.05
  2. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, N/A not applicable, Ref referent category
  3. aModel 1 included Charlson–Romano score as a continuous variable; model 2 replaced it with categorized Charlson–Romano score; and model 3 replaced it with each of the 17 Charlson–Romano comorbidities. All models also adjusted for medications for cardiovascular diseases (statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and for urate-lowering therapies for gout (allopurinol, febuxostat)